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Tali Siegal, Rina Rubinstein, Felix Bokstein, Allan Schwartz, Alexander Lossos, Edna Shalom, Roland Chisin, and J. Moshe Gomori

Object. Osmotic blood—brain barrier (BBB) disruption induced by intraarterial infusion of mannitol is used in conjunction with chemotherapy to treat human brain tumors. The time course to barrier closure, or the so-called therapeutic window, has been examined in animals but little information is available in humans. The authors, therefore assessed the time course to barrier closure after osmotic BBB disruption in humans.

Methods. Disruption of the BBB was demonstrated using 99mTc-glucoheptonate (TcGH) single-photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) scanning in 12 patients who were treated monthly with combination chemotherapy in conjunction with BBB disruption. The primary diagnosis was primary central nervous system lymphoma in seven patients and primitive neuroectodermal tumors in five. The TcGH (20 mCi) was injected at 1- to 480-minute intervals after osmotic BBB disruption, and patients underwent SPECT scanning after 4 hours. A total of 38 studies was performed. Good-to-excellent BBB disruption was obtained in 29 procedures and poor-to-moderate disruption was seen in the other nine studies.

The TcGH indices correlated with the degree of BBB disruption as measured postprocedure on contrast-enhanced CT scans (r = 0.852). Mean baseline TcGH indices were 1.02 ± 0.07. For the group of patients with good-to-excellent disruptions the mean indices at 1 minute postdisruption measured 2.19 ± 0.18. After 40 minutes no significant change was noted (mean index 2.13 ± 0.2). Then the indices declined more steeply and at 120 minutes after the disruption the index was 1.36 ± 0.02. A very slow decline was noted between 120 and 240 minutes after mannitol infusion. At 240 minutes the barrier was still open for all good-to-excellent disruptions (index 1.33 ± 0.08) but at 480 minutes the mean indices had returned to the baseline level.

Conclusions. Results of these in vivo human studies indicate that the time course to closure of the disrupted BBB for low-molecular-weight complexes is longer than previously estimated. The barrier is widely open during the first 40 minutes after osmotic BBB disruption and returns to baseline levels only after 6 to 8 hours following the induction of good or excellent disruption. These findings have important clinical implications for the design of therapeutic protocols.

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José E. Cohen, J. Moshe Gomori, Samuel Moscovici, Andrew H. Kaye, Yigal Shoshan, Sergey Spektor, and Ronen R. Leker


Flow-diverter stents (FDSs) are not generally used for the management of acutely ruptured aneurysms with associated subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Herein, the authors present their experience with FDSs in this scenario, focusing on the antiplatelet regimen, perioperative management, and outcome.


The authors retrospectively reviewed their institutional database for the treatment and outcomes of all patients with acutely ruptured aneurysms and associated SAH from July 2010 to September 2018 who had received an FDS implant as stand-alone treatment within 4 days after diagnosis. The protocol with the use of flow diversion in these patients includes a low threshold for placement of external ventricular drains before stenting, followed by the administration of aspirin and clopidogrel with platelet testing before stent implantation. With this approach, the risk of hemorrhage and stent-related thrombus formation is limited. Demographic, clinical, technical, and imaging data were analyzed.


Overall, 76 patients (61% females, mean age 42.8 ± 11.3 years) met the inclusion criteria. FDS implantation was performed a median of 2 days after diagnosis. On average, 1.05 devices were used per procedure. There was no procedural mortality directly attributed to the endovascular intervention. Procedural device-related clinical complications were recorded in a total of 6 cases (7.9%) and resulted in permanent neurological morbidity in 2 cases (2.6%). There was complete immediate aneurysm occlusion in 11 patients (14.5%), and persistent aneurysm filling was seen in 65 patients (85.5%). Despite this, no patient presented with rebleeding from the target aneurysm. There was an excellent clinical outcome in 62 patients (81.6%), who had a 90-day modified Rankin Scale score of 0–2. Among the 71 survivors, total or near-total occlusion was observed in 64/67 patients (95.5%) with a 3- to 6-month angiographic follow-up and in all cases evaluated at 12 months. Five patients (6.6%) died during follow-up for reasons unrelated to the procedure or new hemorrhage.


Flow diversion is an effective therapeutic strategy for the management of select acutely ruptured aneurysms. Despite low rates of immediate aneurysm occlusion after FDS implantation, the device exerts an important protective effect. The authors’ experience confirmed no aneurysm rerupture, high rates of delayed complete occlusion, and complication rates that compare favorably with the rates obtained using other techniques.