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Tomohito Hishikawa, Koji Tokunaga, Kenji Sugiu, and Isao Date


There is no description of the change in the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) in the diagnostic criteria of moyamoya disease (MMD). However, PCAs are often involved in the clinical setting, and an understanding of the significance of PCA lesions is therefore of great importance when evaluating the disease progression and predicting prognosis. The aim of this study was to assess the difference in posterior circulation involvement in pediatric and adult patients with MMD.


The records of 120 consecutive patients with MMD were reviewed. The clinical manifestations at diagnosis were evaluated on the basis of symptoms and CT and MRI findings. The degree of steno-occlusive internal carotid artery (ICA) lesions and the existence of steno-occlusive PCA lesions were evaluated by observing a total of 240 ICAs and PCAs on angiography. Angiographic correlation between anterior and posterior circulation was assessed in pediatric and adult patients with MMD.


Seventeen (26%) of 66 pediatric patients and 18 (33%) of 54 adult patients exhibited steno-occlusive PCA lesions. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of PCA lesions between pediatric and adult patients with MMD (p = 0.36). The prevalence of infarction in pediatric and adult patients with PCA involvement was significantly higher than that in pediatric and adult patients without PCA involvement (p = 0.0003 and p = 0.003, respectively). There was no significant difference in the distribution of infarction areas between pediatric and adult patients with PCA involvement (p = 0.62). On the basis of the staging system used, steno-occlusive lesions in ICAs ipsilateral to PCAs with lesions were in significantly advanced stages compared with lesions in ICAs ipsilateral to PCAs without lesions in both pediatric and adult cases (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.0008, respectively). Pediatric patients had less advanced steno-occlusive lesions in ICAs ipsilateral to PCAs with lesions compared with adults (p < 0.05).


The clinical significance of posterior circulation involvement in MMD was similar between pediatric and adult patients. The only significant difference was that less advanced ICA lesions could complicate posterior circulation involvement in pediatric patients.

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Toru Satoh, Keisuke Onoda, and Isao Date


The precise preoperative assessment of the complex nerve–vessel relationship at the root exit zone (RExZ) of the facial nerve is important when planning microvascular decompression (MVD) in patients with hemifacial spasms. The authors have developed an imaging technique—the fusion of 3D magnetic resonance (MR) cisternography and coregistered 3D MR angiography images—that allows clear visualization of the spatial relationship between the vessels and the rootlet of the facial nerve at the brainstem.


The authors reconstructed 3D MR cisternograms and 3D MR angiograms by using a perspective volume-rendering algorithm that they applied to the volumetric data sets of the following modalities: MR cisternography (a T2-weighted 3D fast spin echo sequence) and coregistered MR angiography (a 3D time-of-flight sequence). The complex anatomical relationship between the offending vessels and the facial nerve RExZ was inspected preoperatively by examining the fusion images from various perspectives within the cerebellopontine angle cistern, within the affected facial nerve, and through the simulated surgical route. The reconstructed 3D findings of the nerve–vessel relationship were compared with the intraoperative findings. Postoperatively, the fused 3D MR imaging technique was used to confirm that microsurgical dissection and the interposed prosthesis had succeeded in maintaining the causative vessels in a position away from the RExZ.


The fusion of 3D MR cisternograms and 3D MR angiograms may prove useful in the pre- and postoperative assessment of MVD in patients with hemifacial spasm.

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Isao Date, Tatsuro Akioka, and akashi Ohmoto

✓ There are few reports of anterior communicating artery aneurysms causing visual symptoms, and penetration of the optic chiasm by such aneurysms has not been reported. A 40-year-old man presented with the abrupt onset of left homonymous hemianopsia, right visual acuity disturbance (finger counting), and slight headache. Angiography disclosed a 7-mm anterior communicating artery aneurysm projecting inferiorly. After the neck of the aneurysm was clipped, the dome of the aneurysm was resected. The operation confirmed that the aneurysm had penetrated the right half of the optic chiasm and the thrombosed dome had also compressed the right optic tract. Although the aneurysm was successfully clipped, the visual disturbance persisted after surgery, suggesting that the damage to the visual pathways by aneurysm penetration was irreversible in this case.

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Kyohei Kin, Takao Yasuhara, Yousuke Tomita, Michiari Umakoshi, Jun Morimoto, and Isao Date


Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) is one of the most common causes of spinal cord dysfunction. Surgery for CSM is generally effective, but postoperative delirium is a potential complication. Although there have been some studies that investigated postoperative delirium after spine surgery, no useful tool for identifying high-risk patients has been established, and it is unknown if 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) scores can predict postoperative delirium. The objective of this study was to evaluate the correlation between preoperative SF-36 scores and postoperative delirium after surgery for CSM.


Sixty-seven patients who underwent surgery for CSM at the authors’ institution were enrolled in this study. Medical records of these patients were retrospectively reviewed. Patient background, preoperative laboratory data, preoperative SF-36 scores, the preoperative Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score for the evaluation of cervical myelopathy, and perioperative factors were selected as potential risk factors for postoperative delirium. These factors were evaluated using univariable and multivariable logistic regression analysis.


Ten patients were diagnosed with postoperative delirium. Univariable analysis revealed that the physical functioning score (p = 0.01), general health perception score (p < 0.01), and vitality score (p < 0.01) of the SF-36 were significantly lower in patients with postoperative delirium than in those without. The total number of medications was significantly higher in the delirium group compared with the no-delirium group (p = 0.02). In contrast, there were no significant differences between the delirium group and the no-delirium group in cervical JOA scores (p = 0.20). Multivariable analysis revealed that a low general health perception score was an independent risk factor for postoperative delirium (p = 0.02; odds ratio 0.810, 95% confidence interval 0.684–0.960).


Some of the SF-36 scores were significantly lower in patients with postoperative delirium than in those without. In particular, the general health perception score was independently correlated with postoperative delirium. SF-36 scores could help identify patients at high risk for postoperative delirium and aid in the development of prevention strategies.

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Shunji Mugikura and Shoki Takahashi

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Masahiro Kameda, Eijiro Tokuyama, Takaya Senoo, and Isao Date

The multidirectional cranial distraction osteogenesis (MCDO) procedure, which uses an external distraction device, enables tailor-made distraction in an arbitrary direction, eliminating the disadvantage of unidirectional distraction with an internal distraction device. Multiple-suture synostosis cases for syndromic craniosynostosis patients are better indicated for this procedure. Here the authors describe seven cases in which the MCDO procedure was used to treat syndromic craniosynostosis. In each case, the MCDO procedure and postoperative distraction, with reference to midsagittal vector analysis of normal morphology in Japanese children, resulted in morphological improvement.

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Hernando Rafael

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Koji Tokunaga, Kenji Sugiu, Masahiro Kameda, Kyoji Sakai, Kaoru Terasaka, Toru Higashi, and Isao Date

✓ Intracerebral hemorrhage occurred in this 61-year-old woman with preexisting diplopia and proptosis. Results of angiography demonstrated a persistent primitive trigeminal artery (PPTA)—cavernous sinus fistula with cortical venous reflux. Two microcatheters were introduced transarterially through the PPTA into the two draining pathways in the cavernous sinus. Coils were delivered in both pathways simultaneously to prevent further venous overload on either path. The fistula was successfully occluded without complication while the PPTA was preserved. The authors describe this double-catheter technique for coil embolization of a fistula and review the literature concerning PPTA—cavernous sinus fistulas.

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Hideyuki Yoshida, Isao Date, Tetsuro Shingo, Kenjiro Fujiwara, Kazuki Kobayashi, Yasuyuki Miyoshi, and Takashi Ohmoto

Object. The PC12 cells are well known for their ability to secrete dopamine and levodopa. In multiple animal models encapsulated PC12 cells have been shown to ameliorate parkinsonian symptoms when transplanted into the striatum; this technique is expected to be effective clinically as well. The present study was performed using nonhuman primates to ensure that the transplantation of encapsulated PC12 cells is likely to be both safe and effective in human clinical trials.

Methods. Unencapsulated or encapsulated PC12 cells were implanted into the brains of Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata). Histological and immunocytochemical analyses were performed 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks posttransplantation on the unencapsulated cells and 2, 4, and 8 weeks after transplantation on the encapsulated cells. The survival of the PC12 cells inside the capsule was determined by measuring the amounts of dopamine and levodopa released from the capsules after removal from the striatum. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed in both unencapsulated and encapsulated PC12 cell—grafted groups.

Due to the immunological reaction of the host brain no unencapsulated PC12 cells remained in the grafted area 8 weeks after transplantation. On the contrary, encapsulated PC12 cells retrieved from the host brain continued to release dopamine and levodopa even 8 weeks after implantation. The host's reaction to the PC12-loaded capsule was much weaker than that to the unencapsulated PC12 cells.

Conclusions. These results suggest that the transplantation of encapsulated PC12 cells could be a safe and effective treatment modality for Parkinson disease in human patients.