Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 6 of 6 items for

  • Author or Editor: Isabel Fernández-Conejero x
Clear All Modify Search
Full access

Jose L. Sanmillan, Alejandro Fernández-Coello, Isabel Fernández-Conejero, Gerard Plans and Andreu Gabarrós


Brain metastases are the most frequent intracranial malignant tumor in adults. Surgical intervention for metastases in eloquent areas remains controversial and challenging. Even when metastases are not infiltrating intra-parenchymal tumors, eloquent areas can be affected. Therefore, this study aimed to describe the role of a functional guided approach for the resection of brain metastases in the central region.


Thirty-three patients (19 men and 14 women) with perirolandic metastases who were treated at the authors' institution were reviewed. All participants underwent resection using a functional guided approach, which consisted of using intraoperative brain mapping and/or neurophysiological monitoring to aid in the resection, depending on the functionality of the brain parenchyma surrounding each metastasis. Motor and sensory functions were monitored in all patients, and supplementary motor and language area functions were assessed in 5 and 4 patients, respectively. Clinical data were analyzed at presentation, discharge, and the 6-month follow-up.


The most frequent presenting symptom was seizure, followed by paresis. Gross-total removal of the metastasis was achieved in 31 patients (93.9%). There were 6 deaths during the follow-up period. After the removal of the metastasis, 6 patients (18.2%) presented with transient neurological worsening, of whom 4 had worsening of motor function impairment and 2 had acquired new sensory disturbances. Total recovery was achieved before the 3rd month of follow-up in all cases. Excluding those patients who died due to the progression of systemic illness, 88.9% of patients had a Karnofsky Performance Scale score greater than 80% at the 6-month follow-up. The mean survival time was 24.4 months after surgery.


The implementation of intraoperative electrical brain stimulation techniques in the resection of central region metastases may improve surgical planning and resection and may spare eloquent areas. This approach also facilitates maximal resection in these and other critical functional areas, thereby helping to avoid new postoperative neurological deficits. Avoiding permanent neurological deficits is critical for a good quality of life, especially in patients with a life expectancy of over a year.

Free access

Jose L. Sanmillan, Gerard Plans, Andreu Gabarrós and Isabel Fernández-Conejero

Restricted access

Maja Rogić, Vedran Deletis and Isabel Fernández-Conejero


Until now there has been no reliable stimulation protocol for inducing transient language disruptions while mapping Broca's area. Despite the promising data of only a few studies in which speech arrest and language disturbances have been induced, certain concerns have been raised. The purpose of this study was to map Broca's area by using event-related navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) to generate a modified patterned nTMS protocol.


Eleven right-handed subjects underwent nTMS to Broca's area while engaged in a visual object-naming task. Navigated TMS was triggered 300 msec after picture presentation. The modified patterned nTMS protocol consists of 4 stimuli with an interstimulus interval of 6 msec; 8 or 16 of those bursts were repeated with a burst repetition rate of 12 Hz. Prior to mapping of Broca's area, the primary motor cortices (M1) for hand and laryngeal muscles were mapped. The Euclidian distance on MRI was measured between cortical points eliciting transient language disruptions and M1 for the laryngeal muscle.


On stimulating Broca's area, transient language disruptions were induced in all subjects. The mean Euclidian distance between cortical spots inducing transient language disruptions and M1 for the laryngeal muscle was 17.23 ± 4.73 mm.


The stimulation paradigm with the modified patterned nTMS protocol was shown to be promising and might gain more widespread use in speech localization in clinical and research applications.

Restricted access

Isabel Fernández-Conejero and Vedran Deletis

Restricted access

Sedat Ulkatan, Vedran Deletis and Isabel Fernandez-Conejero

Restricted access

Júlia Miró, Pablo López-Ojeda, Andreu Gabarrós, Javier Urriza, Sedat Ulkatan, Vedran Deletis and Isabel Fernández-Conejero