✓A 3-month-old boy presented to the pediatric neurosurgery service with central hypotonia. Magnetic resonance images of the brain revealed a homogeneously enhancing dumbbell-shaped mass located in the fourth ventricle and extending into the left cerebellopontine angle (CPA). A suboccipital craniotomy was performed and a gross-total resection of the mass was achieved. Pathological examination of the resected tissue confirmed the diagnosis of capillary hemangioma. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first reported case of a capillary hemangioma occurring in this location. The authors provide a review of the current literature on intracranial capillary hemangiomas and conclude that, despite the rarity of these lesions, they should be considered in the differential diagnosis of lesions in the fourth ventricle and/or the CPA in children.
Case report and review of the literature
Isaac O. Karikari, Lee A. Selznick, Thomas J. Cummings, and Timothy M. George
Owoicho Adogwa, Aladine A. Elsamadicy, Victoria D. Vuong, Jared Fialkoff, Joseph Cheng, Isaac O. Karikari, and Carlos A. Bagley
Postoperative delirium is common in elderly patients undergoing spine surgery and is associated with a longer and more costly hospital course, functional decline, postoperative institutionalization, and higher likelihood of death within 6 months of discharge. Preoperative cognitive impairment may be a risk factor for the development of postoperative delirium. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between baseline cognitive impairment and postoperative delirium in geriatric patients undergoing surgery for degenerative scoliosis.
Elderly patients 65 years and older undergoing a planned elective spinal surgery for correction of adult degenerative scoliosis were enrolled in this study. Preoperative cognition was assessed using the validated Saint Louis University Mental Status (SLUMS) examination. SLUMS comprises 11 questions, with a maximum score of 30 points. Mild cognitive impairment was defined as a SLUMS score between 21 and 26 points, while severe cognitive impairment was defined as a SLUMS score of ≤ 20 points. Normal cognition was defined as a SLUMS score of ≥ 27 points. Delirium was assessed daily using the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) and rated as absent or present on the basis of CAM. The incidence of delirium was compared in patients with and without baseline cognitive impairment.
Twenty-two patients (18%) developed delirium postoperatively. Baseline demographics, including age, sex, comorbidities, and perioperative variables, were similar in patients with and without delirium. The length of in-hospital stay (mean 5.33 days vs 5.48 days) and 30-day hospital readmission rates (12.28% vs 12%) were similar between patients with and without delirium, respectively. Patients with preoperative cognitive impairment (i.e., a lower SLUMS score) had a higher incidence of postoperative delirium. One- and 2-year patient reported outcomes scores were similar in patients with and without delirium.
Cognitive impairment is a risk factor for the development of postoperative delirium. Postoperative delirium may be associated with decreased preoperative cognitive reserve. Cognitive impairment assessments should be considered in the preoperative evaluations of elderly patients prior to surgery.
Geriatric comanagement reduces perioperative complications and shortens duration of hospital stay after lumbar spine surgery: a prospective single-institution experience
Presented at the 2017 AANS/CNS Joint Section on Disorders of the Spine and Peripheral Nerves
Owoicho Adogwa, Aladine A. Elsamadicy, Victoria D. Vuong, Jessica Moreno, Joseph Cheng, Isaac O. Karikari, and Carlos A. Bagley
Geriatric patients undergoing lumbar spine surgery have unique needs due to the physiological changes of aging. They are at risk for adverse outcomes such as delirium, infection, and iatrogenic complications, and these complications, in turn, contribute to the risk of functional decline, nursing home admission, and death. Whether preoperative and perioperative comanagement by a geriatrician reduces the incidence of in-hospital complications and length of in-hospital stay after elective lumbar spine surgery remains unknown.
A unique model of comanagement for elderly patients undergoing lumbar fusion surgery was implemented at a major academic medical center. The Perioperative Optimization of Senior Health (POSH) program was launched with the aim of improving outcomes in elderly patients (> 65 years old) undergoing complex lumbar spine surgery. In this model, a geriatrician evaluates elderly patients preoperatively, in addition to performing routine preoperative anesthesia surgical screening, and comanages them daily throughout the course of their hospital stay to manage medical comorbid conditions and coordinate multidisciplinary rehabilitation along with the neurosurgical team. The first 100 cases were retrospectively reviewed after initiation of the POSH protocol and compared with the immediately preceding 25 cases to assess the incidence of perioperative complications and clinical outcomes.
One hundred twenty-five patients undergoing lumbar decompression and fusion were enrolled in this pilot program. Baseline characteristics were similar between both cohorts. The mean length of in-hospital stay was 30% shorter in the POSH cohort (6.13 vs 8.72 days; p = 0.06). The mean duration of time between surgery and patient mobilization was significantly shorter in the POSH cohort compared with the non-POSH cohort (1.57 days vs 2.77 days; p = 0.02), and the number of steps ambulated on day of discharge was 2-fold higher in the POSH cohort (p = 0.04). Compared with the non-POSH cohort, the majority of patients in the POSH cohort were discharged to home (24% vs 54%; p = 0.01).
Geriatric comanagement reduces the incidence of postoperative complications, shortens the duration of in-hospital stay, and contributes to improved perioperative functional status in elderly patients undergoing elective spinal surgery for the correction of adult degenerative scoliosis.
Gautam Nayar, Daniel J. Blizzard, Timothy Y. Wang, Steven Cook, Adam G. Back, David Vincent, and Isaac O. Karikari
A previous study found that ultra-low radiation imaging (ULRI) with image enhancement significantly decreases radiation exposure by roughly 75% for both the patient and operating room personnel during minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS-TLIF) (p < 0.001). However, no clinical data exist on whether this imaging modality negatively impacts patient outcomes. Thus, the goal of this randomized controlled trial was to assess pedicle screw placement accuracy with ULRI with image enhancement compared with conventional, standard-dose fluoroscopy for patients undergoing single-level MIS-TLIF.
An institutional review board–approved, prospective internally randomized controlled trial was performed to compare breach rates for pedicle screw placement performed using ULRI with image enhancement versus conventional fluoroscopy. For cannulation and pedicle screw placement, surgery on 1 side (left vs right) was randomly assigned to be performed under ULRI. Screws on the opposite side were placed under conventional fluoroscopy, thereby allowing each patient to serve as his/her own control. In addition to standard intraoperative images to check screw placement, each patient underwent postoperative CT. Three experienced neurosurgeons independently analyzed the images and were blinded as to which imaging modality was used to assist with each screw placement. Screw placement was analyzed for pedicle breach (lateral vs medial and Grade 0 [< 2.0 mm], Grade 1 [2.0–4.0 mm], or Grade 2 [> 4.0 mm]), appropriate screw depth (50%–75% of the vertebral body’s anteroposterior dimension), and appropriate screw angle (within 10° of the pedicle angle). The effective breach rate was calculated as the percentage of screws evaluated as breached > 2.0 mm medially or postoperatively symptomatic.
Twenty-three consecutive patients underwent single-level MIS-TLIF, and their sides were randomly assigned to receive ULRI. No patient had immediate postoperative complications (e.g., neurological decline, need for hardware repositioning). On CT confirmation, 4 screws that had K-wire placement and cannulation under ULRI and screw placement under conventional fluoroscopy showed deviations. There were 2 breaches that deviated medially but both were Grade 0 (< 2.0 mm). Similarly, 2 breaches occurred that were Grade 1 (> 2.0 mm) but both deviated laterally. Therefore, the effective breach rate (breach > 2.0 mm deviated medially) was unchanged in both imaging groups (0% using either ULRI or conventional fluoroscopy; p = 1.00).
ULRI with image enhancement does not compromise accuracy during pedicle screw placement compared with conventional fluoroscopy while it significantly decreases radiation exposure to both the patient and operating room personnel.
Timothy Y. Wang, Vikram A. Mehta, Eric W. Sankey, Khoi D. Than, C. Rory Goodwin, Isaac O. Karikari, Robert E. Isaacs, and Muhammad M. Abd-El-Barr
The rate of symptomatic adjacent-segment disease (ASD) after newer minimally invasive techniques, such as lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF), is not known. This study aimed to assess the incidence of surgically significant ASD in adult patients who have undergone index LLIF and to identify any predictive factors.
Patients who underwent index LLIF with or without additional posterior pedicle screw fixation between 2010 and 2012 and received a minimum of 2 years of postoperative follow-up were retrospectively included. Demographic and perioperative data were recorded, as well as radiographic data and immediate perioperative complications. The primary endpoint was revision surgery at the level above or below the previous construct, from which a survivorship model of patients with surgically significant symptomatic ASD was created.
Sixty-seven patients with a total of 163 interbody levels were included in this analysis. In total, 17 (25.4%) patients developed surgically significant ASD and required additional surgery, with a mean ± SD time to revision of 3.59 ± 2.55 years. The mean annual rate of surgically significant ASD was 3.49% over 7.27 years, which was the average follow-up. One-third of patients developed significant disease within 2 years of index surgery, and 1 patient required surgery at the adjacent level within 1 year. Constructs spanning 3 or fewer interbody levels were significantly associated with increased risk of surgically significant ASD; however, instrument termination at the thoracolumbar junction did not increase this risk. Surgically significant ASD was not impacted by preoperative disc height, foraminal area at the adjacent levels, or changes in global or segmental lumbar lordosis.
The risk of surgically significant ASD after LLIF was similar to the previously reported rates of other minimally invasive spine procedures. Patients with shorter constructs had higher rates of subsequent ASD.
Owoicho Adogwa, Isaac O. Karikari, Aladine A. Elsamadicy, Amanda R. Sergesketter, Diego Galan, and Keith H. Bridwell
Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) are often measured up to 2 years after surgery; however, prospective collection of longitudinal outcomes for 5 years postoperatively can be challenging due to lack of patient follow-up. The aim of this study was to determine whether PROs collected at 2-year follow-up accurately predict long-term PROs 5 years after complex spinal fusion (≥ 5 levels).
This was an ambispective study of 118 adult patients (≥ 18 years old) undergoing ≥ 5-level spinal arthrodesis to the sacrum with iliac fixation from January 2002 to December 2011. Patient demographics and radiographic parameters as well as intraoperative variables were collected. PRO instruments (Scoliosis Research Society [SRS]-22r function, self-image, mental health, pain, and Oswestry Disability Index [ODI]) were completed before surgery then at 2 and 5 years after surgery. Primary outcome investigated in this study was the correlation between SRS-22r domains and ODI collected at 2- and 5-year follow-up.
Of the 118 patients, 111 patients had baseline PROs, 105 patients had 2-year follow-up data, and 91 patients had 5-year follow-up PRO data with 72% undergoing revision surgery. The average pre- and postoperative major coronal curve Cobb angles for the cohort were 32.1° ± 23.7° and 19.8° ± 19.3°, respectively. There was a strong correlation between 2- and 5-year ODI (r2 = 0.80, p < 0.001) and between 2- and 5-year SRS-22r domains, including function (r2 = 0.79, p < 0.001), self-image (r2 = 0.82, p < 0.001), mental health (r2 = 0.77, p < 0.001), and pain (r2 = 0.79, p < 0.001). Of the PROs, ODI showed the greatest absolute change from baseline to 2- and 5-year follow-up (2-year Δ 17.6 ± 15.9; 5-year Δ 16.5 ± 19.9) followed by SRS-22r self-image (2-year Δ 1.4 ± 0.96; 5-year Δ 1.3 ± 1.0), pain (2-year Δ 0.94 ± 0.97; 5-year Δ 0.80 ± 1.0), function (2-year Δ 0.60 ± 0.62; 5-year Δ 0.49 ± 0.79), and mental health (2-year Δ 0.49 ± 0.77; 5-year Δ 0.38 ± 0.84).
Patient-reported outcomes collected at 2-year follow-up may accurately predict long-term PROs (5-year follow-up).
Isaac O. Karikari, Ankit I. Mehta, Can Solakoglu, Carlos A. Bagley, Michael C. Ain, and Oren N. Gottfried
Spinopelvic parameters in children with achondroplasia have not been described. Because they observed a unique sagittal spinopelvic phenotype in some achondroplastic children with very horizontal sacrums, the authors sought to quantify the spinopelvic parameters in a pediatric patient population.
A retrospective review was performed to identify all children (age range 1 month–10 years) with a diagnosis of achondroplasia between 2004 and 2009. Clinical and radiographic data were analyzed for age, sex, lumbar lordosis (LL), thoracic kyphosis (TK), thoracolumbar kyphosis (TLK), sacral slope (SS), pelvic tilt (PT), and pelvic incidence (PI). Differences among these variables were analyzed using a 2-tailed, unpaired Student t-test.
Forty children, 23 males and 17 females, with achondroplasia were identified during the study period. The mean age was 2.6 years. Two groups of patients were identified based on PT (that is, negative or positive tilt and horizontal or not horizontal sacrum). A negative PT was identified in all children with an extremely horizontal sacrum. Seventeen children had a negative PT (mean −16.6°), and the mean parameters in this group were 65.4° for LL, 31.7° for TLK, 18.5° for TK, 43.3° for SS, and 26.4° for PI. Twenty-three children had a positive PT (mean 17.9°), and the mean parameters in this group were 53.4° for LL, 41.5° for TLK, 9.6° for TK, 30.8° for SS, and 43.8° for PI. A statistically significant difference was observed for LL (p = 0.01), TLK (p = 0.05), SS (p = 0.006), PT (p = 0.006), and PI (0.0002).
Spinopelvic parameters in achondroplasia are potentially dichotomous. The future implications of this observation are not known and will need to be explored in future long-term studies that follow pediatric patients with achondroplasia through adulthood.
Owoicho Adogwa, Aladine A. Elsamadicy, Amanda Sergesketter, Victoria D. Vuong, Ankit I. Mehta, Raul A. Vasquez, Joseph Cheng, Carlos A. Bagley, and Isaac O. Karikari
Wound infections following spinal surgery for deformity place a high toll on patients, providers, and the health care system. The prophylactic application of intraoperative vancomycin powder has been shown to lower the infection risk after thoracolumbar decompression and fusion for deformity correction. The purpose of this study was to assess the microbiological patterns of postoperative surgical site infections (SSIs) after prophylactic use of vancomycin powder in adult patients undergoing spinal deformity surgery.
All cases involving adult patients who underwent spinal deformity reconstruction at Duke University Medical Center between 2011 and 2013 with a minimum of 3 months of clinical follow-up were retrospectively reviewed. In all cases included in the study, crystalline vancomycin powder was applied to the surgical bed for infection prophylaxis. Baseline characteristics, operative details, rates of wound infection, and microbiological data for each case were gathered by direct medical record review.
A total of 1200 consecutive spine operations were performed for deformity between 2011 and 2013. Review of the associated records demonstrated 34 cases of SSI, yielding an SSI rate of 2.83%. The patients’ mean age (± SD) was 62.08 ± 14.76 years. The patients’ mean body mass index was 30.86 ± 7.15 kg/m2, and 29.41% had a history of diabetes. The average dose of vancomycin powder was 1.41 ± 2.77 g (range 1–7 g). Subfascial drains were placed in 88% of patients. All SSIs occurred within 30 days of surgery, with deep wound infections accounting for 50%. In 74% of the SSIs cultures were positive, with about half the organisms being gram negative, such as Citrobacter freundii, Proteus mirabilis, Morganella morgani, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. There were no adverse clinical outcomes related to the local application of vancomycin.
Our study suggests that in the setting of prophylactic vancomycin powder use, the preponderance of SSIs are caused by gram-negative organisms or are polymicrobial. Further randomized control trials of prophylactic adjunctive measures are warranted to help guide the choice of empirical antibiotic therapy while awaiting culture data.
Eric W. Sankey, Vikram A. Mehta, Timothy Y. Wang, Tracey T. Than, C. Rory Goodwin, Isaac O. Karikari, Christopher I. Shaffrey, Muhammad M. Abd-El-Barr, and Khoi D. Than
Spine surgery has been disproportionately impacted by medical liability and malpractice litigation, with the majority of claims and payouts related to procedural error. One common area for the potential avoidance of malpractice claims and subsequent payouts involves misplaced pedicle and/or lateral mass instrumentation. However, the medicolegal impact of misplaced screws on spine surgery has not been directly reported in the literature. The authors of the current study aimed to describe this impact in the United States, as well as to suggest a potential method for mitigating the problem.
This retrospective analysis of 68 closed medicolegal cases related to misplaced screws in spine surgery showed that neurosurgeons and orthopedic spine surgeons were equally named as the defendant (n = 32 and 31, respectively), and cases were most commonly due to misplaced lumbar pedicle screws (n = 41, 60.3%). Litigation resulted in average payouts of $1,204,422 ± $753,832 between 1995 and 2019, when adjusted for inflation. The median time to case closure was 56.3 (35.2–67.2) months when ruled in favor of the plaintiff (i.e., patient) compared to 61.5 (51.4–77.2) months for defendant (surgeon) verdicts (p = 0.117).
Ranjith Babu, Jordan M. Komisarow, Vijay J. Agarwal, Shervin Rahimpour, Akshita Iyer, Dylan Britt, Isaac O. Karikari, Peter M. Grossi, Steven Thomas, Allan H. Friedman, and Cory Adamson
The prognosis of elderly patients with glioblastoma (GBM) is universally poor. Currently, few studies have examined postoperative outcomes and the effects of various modern therapies such as bevacizumab on survival in this patient population. In this study, the authors evaluated the effects of various factors on overall survival in a cohort of elderly patients with newly diagnosed GBM.
A retrospective review was performed of elderly patients (≥ 65 years old) with newly diagnosed GBM treated between 2004 and 2010. Various characteristics were evaluated in univariate and multivariate stepwise models to examine their effects on complication risk and overall survival.
A total of 120 patients were included in the study. The median age was 71 years, and sex was distributed evenly. Patients had a median Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS) score of 80 and a median of 2 neurological symptoms on presentation. The majority (53.3%) of the patients did not have any comorbidities. Tumors most frequently (43.3%) involved the temporal lobe, followed by the parietal (35.8%), frontal (32.5%), and occipital (15.8%) regions. The majority (57.5%) of the tumors involved eloquent structures. The median tumor size was 4.3 cm. Every patient underwent resection, and 63.3% underwent gross-total resection (GTR). The vast majority (97.3%) of the patients received the postoperative standard of care consisting of radiotherapy with concurrent temozolomide. The majority (59.3%) of patients received additional agents, most commonly consisting of bevacizumab (38.9%). The median survival for all patients was 12.0 months; 26.7% of patients experienced long-term (≥ 2-year) survival. The extent of resection was seen to significantly affect overall survival; patients who underwent GTR had a median survival of 14.1 months, whereas those who underwent subtotal resection had a survival of 9.6 months (p = 0.038). Examination of chemotherapeutic effects revealed that the use of bevacizumab compared with no bevacizumab (20.1 vs 7.9 months, respectively; p < 0.0001) and irinotecan compared with no irinotecan (18.0 vs 9.7 months, respectively; p = 0.027) significantly improved survival. Multivariate stepwise analysis revealed that older age (hazard ratio [HR] 1.06 [95% CI1.02–1.10]; p = 0.0077), a higher KPS score (HR 0.97 [95% CI 0.95–0.99]; p = 0.0082), and the use of bevacizumab (HR 0.51 [95% CI 0.31–0.83]; p = 0.0067) to be significantly associated with survival.
This study has demonstrated that GTR confers a modest survival benefit on elderly patients with GBM, suggesting that safe maximal resection is warranted. In addition, bevacizumab significantly increased the overall survival of these elderly patients with GBM; older age and preoperative KPS score also were significant prognostic factors. Although elderly patients with GBM have a poor prognosis, they may experience enhanced survival after the administration of the standard of care and the use of additional chemotherapeutics such as bevacizumab.