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Robert Fahed, Tim E. Darsaut, Igor Salazkin, Guylaine Gevry and Jean Raymond

OBJECTIVE

The Medina embolization device (MED) is a novel, braided self-expanding endovascular device designed to occlude aneurysms by constructing an in situ intrasaccular flow diverter. Although a single device can be positioned at the neck of simple spherical in vitro aneurysms, the best way to occlude more complex in vivo aneurysms (using multiple MEDs or a combination of MEDs and platinum coils) is currently unknown.

METHODS

Fifty-two aneurysms of 3 different types were created in 31 canines, yielding 48 patent aneurysms. Treatments were randomly allocated by drawing lots: group 1, MEDs alone (n = 16); group 2, MEDs plus standard platinum coils (n = 16); and group 3, control aneurysms treated with coils alone (n = 16). Angiographic results were scored and compared immediately following treatment completion and at 3 months. Specimens were photographed and the extent of neointimal closure of the aneurysmal neck scored, followed by histopathological analyses.

RESULTS

Angiographic scores of 0 or 1 (occlusion or near occlusion) were initially obtained in 2 of 16 (12.5%, 95% CI 1.6%–38.3%) group 1 (MEDs alone), 3 of 16 (18.7%, 95% CI 4%–45.6%) group 2 (MEDs plus coils), and 10 of 16 (62.5%, 95% CI 35.4%–84.8%) group 3 (coils alone) aneurysms (p = 0.005). At 3 months, scores of 0 or 1 were found in 11 of 16 (68.7%, 95% CI 41.3%–89.0%) group 1, 9 of 16 (56.2%, 95% CI 29.9%–80.2%) group 2, and 8 of 16 (50%, 95% CI 24.7%–75.3%) group 3 aneurysms (p = 0.82). Neointimal scores were similar for the 3 treated groups (p = 0.66).

CONCLUSION

Endovascular treatment of experimental aneurysms with MEDs or MEDs and coils showed angiographic occlusion and neointimal scores at 3 months that were similar to those achieved with standard platinum coiling.

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Tim E. Darsaut, Igor Salazkin, Jean-Christophe Gentric, Elsa Magro, Guylaine Gevry, Michel W. Bojanowski and Jean Raymond

OBJECTIVE

Surgical management of recurrent aneurysms following failed flow diversion may pose difficulties in securing vascular control with temporary clips. The authors tested the efficacy and impact of different types of aneurysm clips on flow-diverted arteries.

METHODS

Six wide-necked experimental aneurysms were created in canines and treated with Pipeline flow diverters. In 4 aneurysms, occlusion of the artery at the level of the proximal and distal landing zones (n = 2 per aneurysm) was attempted, using temporary, fenestrated, single, and double permanent aneurysm clips. Two aneurysms served as unclipped controls. Serial angiography was performed to investigate the efficacy of clip occlusion, flow diverter deformation, and thrombus formation. After the animals were killed, the flow-diverted aneurysm constructs were opened and photographed to determine neointimal or device damage as a result of clip placement.

RESULTS

Angiography-confirmed clip occlusion was only possible for 4 of 8 of the tested flow-diverted arterial segments. Clip application attempts led to filling defects consistent with thrombus formation in 2 of 4 flow-diverted constructs, and to minor damage of the flow diverter with neointimal fracture in 1 of 4 cases.

CONCLUSIONS

Aneurysm clips placed on canine parent arteries bearing a Pipeline flow diverter were unable to reliably stop blood flow. Application of aneurysm clips can cause mild damage to the device and neointima, which might translate into thromboembolic risks. If possible, vascular control should be sought beyond the terminal ends of the implanted device.

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Tim E. Darsaut, Fabrice Bing, Igor Salazkin, Guylaine Gevry and Jean Raymond

Object

Flow diverters (FDs) are increasingly used to treat complex intracranial aneurysms, but preclinical studies that could guide clinical applications are lacking. The authors designed a modular aneurysm model in canines to address this problem.

Methods

Three variants of one modular aneurysm model were constructed in 21 animals. Sidewall (n = 5), curved sidewall (n = 5), and end-wall bifurcation (n = 7) aneurysms were treated with prototype 36-wire FDs. Four more end-wall bifurcation aneurysms were treated with prototype 48-wire lower-porosity FDs. Angiographic results postimplantation and at 3 months were scored with an ordinal scale. Animals were euthanized at 3 (n = 17) or 6 (n = 3) months, and the FD covering the aneurysm ostium was photographed to analyze metallic porosity and amount of neointima formation.

Results

Straight sidewall aneurysms were better occluded than curved sidewall and end-wall bifurcation aneurysms at the 3-month angiography follow-up (p = 0.010). Flow diverters failed to occlude curved sidewall aneurysms (n = 0/5) and all but one (n = 1/7) end-wall bifurcation aneurysm. Angiographic results were no better (n = 0/4) using a 48-wire FD (p = 0.788). Branches jailed by the FD (n = 16) remained patent in all cases. Metallic porosity was decreased (p = 0.014) and neointimal closure of the aneurysm ostium was more complete (p = 0.040) in sidewall aneurysms than in curved or bifurcation variants of the model.

Conclusions

Flow diverters may succeed in treating straight sidewall aneurysms, but the same device repeatedly fails to occlude curved sidewall and end-wall bifurcation aneurysms. In vivo studies can be designed to test basic principles that, once validated, may serve to guide clinical use of new devices.

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Xavier Boileau, Han Zeng, Robert Fahed, Fabrice Bing, Alina Makoyeva, Tim E. Darsaut, Pierre Savard, Benoit Coutu, Igor Salazkin and Jean Raymond

OBJECTIVE

Endovascular treatment of aneurysms may result in incomplete initial occlusion and aneurysm recurrence at angiographic follow-up studies. This study aimed to assess the feasibility and efficacy of bipolar radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of aneurysm remnants after coil embolization.

METHODS

Bipolar RFA was accomplished using the coil mass as 1 electrode, while the second electrode was a stent placed across the aneurysmal neck. After preliminary experiments and protocol approval from the Animal Care committee, wide-necked bifurcation aneurysms were constructed in 24 animals. Aneurysms were allocated to 1 of 3 groups: partial intraoperative coil embolization, followed by RFA (n = 12; treated group) or without RFA (n = 6; control group 1); or attempted complete endovascular coil embolization 2–4 weeks later (n = 6; control group 2). Angiographic results were compared at baseline, immediately after RFA, and at 12 weeks, using an ordinal scale. Pathological results and neointima formation at the neck were compared using a semiquantitative grading scale.

RESULTS

Bipolar RFA was able to reliably target the aneurysm neck when the coil mass and stent were used as electrodes. RFA improved angiographic results immediately after partial coiling (p = 0.0024). Two RFA-related complications occurred, involving transient occlusion of 1 carotid artery and 1 hemorrhage from an adventitial arterial blister. At 12 weeks, angiographic results were improved with RFA (median score of 0), when compared with controls (median score of 2; p = 0.0013). Neointimal closure of the aneurysm neck was better with RFA compared with controls (p = 0.0003).

CONCLUSIONS

Bipolar RFA can improve results of embolization in experimental models by selectively ablating residual lesions after coil embolization.