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Caglar Yilgor, Nuray Sogunmez, Yasemin Yavuz, Kadir Abul, Louis Boissiére, Sleiman Haddad, Ibrahim Obeid, Frank Kleinstück, Francisco Javier Sánchez Pérez-Grueso, Emre Acaroğlu, Anne F. Mannion, Ferran Pellise, Ahmet Alanay and the European Spine Study Group

OBJECTIVE

The subtraction of lumbar lordosis (LL) from the pelvic incidence (PI) offers an estimate of the LL required for a given PI value. Relative LL (RLL) and the lordosis distribution index (LDI) are PI-based individualized measures. RLL quantifies the magnitude of lordosis relative to the ideal lordosis as defined by the magnitude of PI. LDI defines the magnitude of lower arc lordosis in proportion to total lordosis. The aim of this study was to compare RLL and PI − LL for their ability to predict postoperative complications and their correlations with health-related quality of life (HRQOL) scores.

METHODS

Inclusion criteria were ≥ 4 levels of fusion and ≥ 2 years of follow-up. Mechanical complications were proximal junctional kyphosis/proximal junctional failure, distal junctional kyphosis/distal junctional failure, rod breakage, and implant-related complications. Correlations between PI − LL, RLL, PI, and HRQOL were analyzed using the Pearson correlation coefficient. Mechanical complication rates in PI − LL, RLL, LDI, RLL, and LDI interpreted together, and RLL subgroups for each PI − LL category were compared using chi-square tests and the exact test. Predictive models for mechanical complications with RLL and PI − LL were analyzed using binomial logistic regressions.

RESULTS

Two hundred twenty-two patients (168 women, 54 men) were included. The mean age was 52.2 ± 19.3 years (range 18–84 years). The mean follow-up was 28.8 ± 8.2 months (range 24–62 months). There was a significant correlation between PI − LL and PI (r = 0.441, p < 0.001), threatening the use of PI − LL to quantify spinopelvic mismatch for different PI values. RLL was not correlated with PI (r = −0.093, p > 0.05); therefore, it was able to quantify divergence from ideal lordosis for all PI values. Compared with PI − LL, RLL had stronger correlations with HRQOL scores (p < 0.05). Discrimination performance was better for the model with RLL than for PI − LL. The agreement between RLL and PI − LL was high (κ = 0.943, p < 0.001), moderate (κ = 0.455, p < 0.001), and poor (κ = −0.154, p = 0.343), respectively, for large, average, and small PI sizes. When analyzed by RLL, each PI − LL category was further divided into distinct groups of patients who had different mechanical complication rates (p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS

Using the formula of PI − LL may be insufficient to quantify normolordosis for the whole spectrum of PI values when applied as an absolute numeric value in conjunction with previously reported population-based average thresholds of 10° and 20°. Schwab PI − LL groups were found to constitute an inhomogeneous group of patients. RLL offers an individualized quantification of LL for all PI sizes. Compared with PI − LL, RLL showed a greater association with both mechanical complications and HRQOL. The use of RLL and LDI together, instead of PI − LL, for surgical planning may result in lower mechanical complication rates and better long-term HRQOL.

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David Christopher Kieser, Derek Thomas Cawley, Takashi Fujishiro, Simon Mazas, Louis Boissière, Ibrahim Obeid, Vincent Pointillart, Jean-Marc Vital and Olivier Gille

OBJECTIVE

The objective of this study was to identify the risk factors of anterior bone loss (ABL) in cervical disc arthroplasty (CDA) and the subsequent effect of this phenomenon.

METHODS

The authors performed a retrospective radiological review of 185 patients with a minimum 5-year follow-up after CDA (using Bryan, Discocerv, Mobi-C, or Baguera C). Postoperative radiographs were examined and compared to the initial postoperative films to determine the percentage of ABL. The relationship of ABL to potential risk factors was analyzed.

RESULTS

Complete radiological assessment was available in 145 patients with 193 CDRs and 383 endplates (average age 45 years, range 25–65 years, 54% women). ABL was identified in 63.7% of CDRs (48.7% mild, 11.9% moderate, 3.1% severe). Age (p = 0.770), sex (p = 0.200), postoperative alignment (p = 0.330), midflexion point (p = 0.509), maximal flexion (p = 0.080), and extension (p = 0.717) did not relate to ABL. There was no significant difference in the rate of severe ABL between implants. Multilevel surgery conferred an increased risk of any and severe ABL (p = 0.013 for both). The upper endplate, defined as superior to the CDA, was more commonly involved (p = 0.008), but there was no significant difference whether the endplate was between or not between implants (p = 0.226). The development of ABL did not affect the long-term range of movement (ROM) of the CDA, but did increase the overall risk of autofusion. ABL was not associated with pain or functional deficits. No patients required a reoperation or revision of their implant during the course of this study, and there were no cases of progressive ABL beyond the first year.

CONCLUSIONS

ABL is common in all implant types assessed, although most is mild. Age, sex, postoperative alignment, ROM, and midflexion point do not relate to this phenomenon. However, the greater the number of levels operated, the higher the risk of developing ABL. The development of ABL has no long-term effect on the mechanical functioning of the disc or necessity for revision surgery, although it may increase the rate of autofusion.

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Sayf S. A. Faraj, Marinus De Kleuver, Alba Vila-Casademunt, Roderick M. Holewijn, Ibrahim Obeid, Emre Acaroğlu, Ahmet Alanay, Frank Kleinstück, Francisco S. Pérez-Grueso and Ferran Pellisé

OBJECTIVE

Previous studies have demonstrated that among patients with adult spinal deformity (ASD), sagittal plane malalignment is poorly tolerated and correlates with suboptimal patient-reported health-related quality of life (HRQOL). These studies included a broad range of radiographic abnormalities and various types of ASD. However, the clinical and radiographic characteristics of de novo degenerative lumbar scoliosis (DNDLS), a subtype of ASD, may influence previously reported correlation strengths. The aim of this study was to correlate sagittal radiographic parameters with pretreatment HRQOL in patients with symptomatic DNDLS.

METHODS

In this multicenter retrospective study of prospectively collected data, 74 patients with symptomatic DNDLS were enrolled based on anteroposterior and lateral 36-inch standing radiographs. Measurements included Cobb angle, coronal imbalance, pelvic incidence (PI), pelvic tilt (PT), lumbar lordosis (LL), sagittal vertical axis (SVA), thoracic kyphosis, pelvic incidence minus lumbar lordosis (PI−LL), T1-pelvic angle, and global tilt. HRQOL questionnaires included the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Scoliosis Research Society (SRS-22r), 36-item Short-Form Health Survey, and numeric rating scale (NRS) for back and leg pain. Correlations between radiographic parameters and HRQOL were assessed. Finally, HRQOL and increasing severity of sagittal modifiers (SVA, PI−LL, and PT) were evaluated.

RESULTS

Weak correlations were found between SVA and ODI (r = 0.296, p < 0.05) and PT with NRS back pain and the SRS pain domain (r = −0.260, p < 0.05, and r = 0.282, p < 0.05, respectively). Other sagittal radiographic parameters did not show any significant correlation with HRQOL. No significant differences in HRQOL were found concerning the increasing severity of PT, PI−LL, and SVA.

CONCLUSIONS

While DNDLS is a severe disabling condition, no noteworthy association between clinical and sagittal radiographic parameters was found through this study, demonstrating that sagittal radiographic parameters should not be considered the unique predictor of pretreatment suboptimal health status in this specific group of patients. Future studies addressing classification and treatment algorithms will have to take into account the existing subgroups of ASD.

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Renaud Lafage, Ibrahim Obeid, Barthelemy Liabaud, Shay Bess, Douglas Burton, Justin S. Smith, Cyrus Jalai, Richard Hostin, Christopher I. Shaffrey, Christopher Ames, Han Jo Kim, Eric Klineberg, Frank Schwab, Virginie Lafage and the International Spine Study Group

OBJECTIVE

The surgical correction of adult spinal deformity (ASD) often involves modifying lumbar lordosis (LL) to restore ideal sagittal alignment. However, corrections that include large changes in LL increase the risk for development of proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK). Little is known about the impact of cranial versus caudal correction in the lumbar spine on the occurrence of PJK. The goal of this study was to investigate the impact of the location of the correction on acute PJK development.

METHODS

This study was a retrospective review of a prospective multicenter database. Surgically treated ASD patients with early follow-up evaluations (6 weeks) and fusions of the full lumbosacral spine were included. Radiographic parameters analyzed included the classic spinopelvic parameters (pelvic incidence [PI], pelvic tilt [PT], PI−LL, and sagittal vertical axis [SVA]) and segmental correction. Using Glattes’ criteria, patients were stratified into PJK and noPJK groups and propensity matched by age and regional lumbar correction (ΔPI−LL). Radiographic parameters and segmental correction were compared between PJK and noPJK patients using independent t-tests.

RESULTS

After propensity matching, 312 of 483 patients were included in the analysis (mean age 64 years, 76% women, 40% with PJK). There were no significant differences between PJK and noPJK patients at baseline or postoperatively, or between changes in alignment, with the exception of thoracic kyphosis (TK) and ΔTK. PJK patients had a decrease in segmental lordosis at L4-L5-S1 (−0.6° vs 1.6°, p = 0.025), and larger increases in segmental correction at cranial levels L1-L2-L3 (9.9° vs 7.1°), T12-L1-L2 (7.3° vs 5.4°), and T11-T12-L1 (2.9° vs 0.7°) (all p < 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS

Although achievement of an optimal sagittal alignment is the goal of realignment surgery, dramatic lumbar corrections appear to increase the risk of PJK. This study was the first to demonstrate that patients who developed PJK underwent kyphotic changes in the L4–S1 segments while restoring LL at more cranial levels (T12–L3). These findings suggest that restoring lordosis at lower lumbar levels may result in a decreased risk of developing PJK.

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Emmanuelle Ferrero, Barthelemy Liabaud, Jensen K. Henry, Christopher P. Ames, Khaled Kebaish, Gregory M. Mundis, Richard Hostin, Munish C. Gupta, Oheneba Boachie-Adjei, Justin S. Smith, Robert A. Hart, Ibrahim Obeid, Bassel G. Diebo, Frank J. Schwab and Virginie Lafage

OBJECTIVE

Three-column osteotomy (3CO) is a demanding technique that is performed to correct sagittal spinal malalignment. However, the impact of the 3CO level on pelvic or truncal sagittal correction remains unclear. In this study, the authors assessed the impact of 3CO level and postoperative apex of lumbar lordosis on sagittal alignment correction, complications, and revisions.

METHODS

In this retrospective study of a multicenter spinal deformity database, radiographic data were analyzed at baseline and at 1- and 2-year follow-up to quantify spinopelvic alignment, apex of lordosis, and resection angle. The impact of 3CO level and apex level of lumbar lordosis on the sagittal correction was assessed. Logistic regression analyses were performed, controlling for cofounders, to investigate the effects of 3CO level and apex level on intraoperative and postoperative complications as well as on the need for subsequent revision surgery.

RESULTS

A total of 468 patients were included (mean age 60.8 years, mean body mass index 28.1 kg/m2); 70% of patients were female. The average 3CO resection angle was 25.1° and did not significantly differ with regard to 3CO level. There were no significant correlations between the 3CO level and amount of sagittal vertical axis or pelvic tilt correction. The postoperative apex level significantly correlated with greater correction of pelvic tilt (2° per more caudal level, R = −0.2, p = 0.006). Lower-level 3CO significantly correlated with revisions for pseudarthrosis (OR = 3.88, p = 0.001) and postoperative motor deficits (OR = 2.02, p = 0.026).

CONCLUSIONS

In this study, a more caudal lumbar 3CO level did not lead to greater sagittal vertical axis correction. The postoperative apex of lumbar lordosis significantly impacted pelvic tilt. 3CO levels that were more caudal were associated with more postoperative motor deficits and revisions.

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Kazunori Hayashi, Louis Boissière, Fernando Guevara-Villazón, Daniel Larrieu, Susana Núñez-Pereira, Anouar Bourghli, Olivier Gille, Jean-Marc Vital, Ferran Pellisé, Francisco Javier Sánchez Pérez-Grueso, Frank Kleinstück, Emre Acaroğlu, Ahmet Alanay and Ibrahim Obeid

OBJECTIVE

Achieving high patient satisfaction with management is often one of the goals after adult spinal deformity (ASD) surgery. However, literature on associated factors and their correlations with patient satisfaction is limited. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical and radiographic factors independently correlated with patient satisfaction in terms of management at 2 years after surgery.

METHODS

A multicenter prospective database of ASD surgery was retrospectively reviewed. The demographics, complications, health-related quality of life (HRQOL) subdomains, and radiographic parameters were examined to determine their correlation coefficients with the Scoliosis Research Society-22 questionnaire (SRS-22R) satisfaction scores at 2 years (Sat-2y score). Subsequently, factors determined to be independently associated with low satisfaction (Sat-2y score ≤ 4.0) were used to construct 2 types of multivariate models: one with 2-year data and the other with improvement (score at 2 years − score at baseline) data.

RESULTS

A total of 422 patients who underwent ASD surgery (mean age 53.1 years) were enrolled. All HRQOL subdomains and several coronal and sagittal radiographic parameters had significantly improved 2 years after surgery. The Sat-2y score was strongly correlated with the SRS-22R self-image (SI)/appearance subdomain (r = 0.64), followed by moderate correlation with subdomains related to standing (r = 0.53), body pain (r = 0.49–0.55), and function (r = 0.41–0.55) at 2 years. Conversely, the correlation between radiographic or demographic parameters with Sat-2y score was weak (r < 0.4). Multivariate analysis to eliminate confounding factors revealed that a worse Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) score for standing (≥ 2 points; OR 4.48) and pain intensity (≥ 2 points; OR 2.07), SRS-22R SI/appearance subdomain (< 3 points; OR 2.70) at 2 years, and a greater sagittal vertical axis (SVA) (> 5 cm; OR 2.68) at 2 years were independent related factors for low satisfaction. According to the other model, a lower improvement in ODI for standing (< 30%; OR 2.68), SRS-22R pain (< 50%; OR 3.25) and SI/appearance (< 50%; OR 2.18) subdomains, and an inadequate restoration of the SVA from baseline (< 2 cm; OR 3.16) were associated with low satisfaction.

CONCLUSIONS

Self-image, pain, standing difficulty, and sagittal alignment restoration may be useful goals in improving patient satisfaction with management at 2 years after ASD surgery. Surgeons and other medical providers have to take care of these factors to prevent low satisfaction.

Free access

Kristina Bianco, Robert Norton, Frank Schwab, Justin S. Smith, Eric Klineberg, Ibrahim Obeid, Gregory Mundis Jr., Christopher I. Shaffrey, Khaled Kebaish, Richard Hostin, Robert Hart, Munish C. Gupta, Douglas Burton, Christopher Ames, Oheneba Boachie-Adjei, Themistocles S. Protopsaltis and Virginie Lafage

Object

Three-column resection osteotomies (3COs) are commonly performed for sagittal deformity but have high rates of reported complications. Authors of this study aimed to examine the incidence of and intercenter variability in major intraoperative complications (IOCs), major postoperative complications (POCs) up to 6 weeks postsurgery, and overall complications (that is, both IOCs and POCs). They also aimed to investigate the incidence of and intercenter variability in blood loss during 3CO procedures.

Methods

The incidence of IOCs, POCs, and overall complications associated with 3COs were retrospectively determined for the study population and for each of 8 participating surgical centers. The incidence of major blood loss (MBL) over 4 L and the percentage of total blood volume lost were also determined for the study population and each surgical center. Complication rates and blood loss were compared between patients with one and those with two osteotomies, as well as between patients with one thoracic osteotomy (ThO) and those with one lumbar or sacral osteotomy (LSO). Risk factors for developing complications were determined.

Results

Retrospective review of prospectively acquired data for 423 consecutive patients who had undergone 3CO at 8 surgical centers was performed. The incidence of major IOCs, POCs, and overall complications was 7%, 39%, and 42%, respectively, for the study population overall. The most common IOC was spinal cord deficit (2.6%) and the most common POC was unplanned return to the operating room (19.4%). Patients with two osteotomies had more POCs (56% vs 38%, p = 0.04) than the patients with one osteotomy. Those with ThO had more IOCs (16% vs 6%, p = 0.03), POCs (58% vs 34%, p < 0.01), and overall complications (67% vs 37%, p < 0.01) than the patients with LSO. There was significant variation in the incidence of IOCs, POCs, and overall complications among the 8 sites (p < 0.01). The incidence of MBL was 24% for the study population, which varied significantly between sites (p < 0.01). Patients with MBL had a higher risk of IOCs, POCs, and overall complications (OR 2.15, 1.76, and 2.01, respectively). The average percentage of total blood volume lost was 55% for the study population, which also varied among sites (p < 0.01).

Conclusions

Given the complexity of 3COs for spinal deformity, it is important for spine surgeons to understand the risk factors and complication rates associated with these procedures. In this study, the overall incidence of major complications following 3CO procedures was 42%. Risks for developing complications included an older age (> 60 years), two osteotomies, ThO, and MBL.

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Ferran Pellisé, Miquel Serra-Burriel, Justin S. Smith, Sleiman Haddad, Michael P. Kelly, Alba Vila-Casademunt, Francisco Javier Sánchez Pérez-Grueso, Shay Bess, Jeffrey L. Gum, Douglas C. Burton, Emre Acaroğlu, Frank Kleinstück, Virginie Lafage, Ibrahim Obeid, Frank Schwab, Christopher I. Shaffrey, Ahmet Alanay, Christopher Ames, the International Spine Study Group and the European Spine Study Group

OBJECTIVE

Adult spinal deformity (ASD) surgery has a high rate of major complications (MCs). Public information about adverse outcomes is currently limited to registry average estimates. The object of this study was to assess the incidence of adverse events after ASD surgery, and to develop and validate a prognostic tool for the time-to-event risk of MC, hospital readmission (RA), and unplanned reoperation (RO).

METHODS

Two models per outcome, created with a random survival forest algorithm, were trained in an 80% random split and tested in the remaining 20%. Two independent prospective multicenter ASD databases, originating from the European continent and the United States, were queried, merged, and analyzed. ASD patients surgically treated by 57 surgeons at 23 sites in 5 countries in the period from 2008 to 2016 were included in the analysis.

RESULTS

The final sample consisted of 1612 ASD patients: mean (standard deviation) age 56.7 (17.4) years, 76.6% women, 10.4 (4.3) fused vertebral levels, 55.1% of patients with pelvic fixation, 2047.9 observation-years. Kaplan-Meier estimates showed that 12.1% of patients had at least one MC at 10 days after surgery; 21.5%, at 90 days; and 36%, at 2 years. Discrimination, measured as the concordance statistic, was up to 71.7% (95% CI 68%–75%) in the development sample for the postoperative complications model. Surgical invasiveness, age, magnitude of deformity, and frailty were the strongest predictors of MCs. Individual cumulative risk estimates at 2 years ranged from 3.9% to 74.1% for MCs, from 3.17% to 44.2% for RAs, and from 2.67% to 51.9% for ROs.

CONCLUSIONS

The creation of accurate prognostic models for the occurrence and timing of MCs, RAs, and ROs following ASD surgery is possible. The presented variability in patient risk profiles alongside the discrimination and calibration of the models highlights the potential benefits of obtaining time-to-event risk estimates for patients and clinicians.