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Halit Çavuşoglu, Ramazan Alper Kaya, Osman Nuri Türkmenoglu, Ibrahim Çolak, and Yunus Aydin

Object

In this study the authors' goal was to present the clinical and imaging results of the combined surgical and medical treatment of intracranial abscesses.

Methods

The authors retrospectively analyzed the data in 51 patients with intracranial abscesses who underwent surgery between January 1997 and November 2007. Patients were treated with aspiration through a single bur hole, total resection with open craniotomy, or image-guided stereotactic aspiration. Computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging was performed ~ 24 hours after surgery to evaluate the size of the abscess and almost weekly during follow-up until the abscess and/or cerebral edema was reduced. Clinical results were analyzed using modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores.

Results

There were 36 male and 15 female patients, and their ages ranged from 14 months to 58 years (mean 29 years). Adjacent localized cranial infection was the most common predisposing factor in 31 patients (61%). Thirty-two patients were treated by repeated aspiration via a single bur hole. Streptococcus and Staphylococcus species were isolated most frequently. No statistically significiant difference between causative organisms and clinical outcome was identified (p > 0.05). Assessment of overall 1-year clinical outcomes was favorable (mRS Scores 0–2) in 76.5% of patients (39 of 51 patients). The initial neurological condition was strongly correlated with the clinical outcome (p < 0.001).

Conclusions

A combination of surgical aspiration or removal of all abscesses > 2.5 cm in diameter, a 6-week or longer course of intravenous antibiotics, and weekly neuroimaging should yield cure rates of > 90% in patients with intracranial abscesses.

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Halit Çavuşoğlu, Ramazan Alper Kaya, Osman Nuri Türkmenoğlu, Cengiz Tuncer, İbrahim Çolak, and Yunus Aydandinodot;n

Object

The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of anterior instrumentation following radical debridement and tibial allografting and its long-term progression in patients with multilevel spinal tuberculosis.

Methods

This prospective observational study was undertaken to analyze 22 patients with multilevel spinal tuberculosis (Pott disease) who underwent anterior radical debridement, decompression, and fusion using anterior spinal instrumentation and tibial allograft replacement between 1999 and 2001. Clinical outcomes were assessed using the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) Impairment Scale and a visual analog scale (VAS). Preoperative and postoperative plain radiographs were obtained, and the focal kyphotic angle of the surgically treated spinal segments and the overall sagittal and coronal contours of the thoracic and lumbar spine were evaluated in all patients.

Results

The mean follow-up time was 84 months (range 36–96 months). All patients demonstrated clinical healing of the tuberculosis infection. All patients showed evidence of successful bone fusion. The mean late postoperative kyphosis correction was 74% (range 63–91%). On average, 2° (range 0–5°) of loss of correction was noted in the local kyphotic angle postoperatively in late follow-up findings. Evaluation of the surgical effect on sagittal global contours showed a significant correction rate in thoracic, thoracolumbar, and lumbar regions. The mean late postoperative coronal plane alignment correction was 99%. The ASIA Impairment Scale scores demonstrated significant improvement in late follow-up results in our series. Surgical decompression also resulted in a dramatic reduction of overall pain in all patients (late postoperative VAS score 1.61 ± 0.81).

Conclusions

Anterior tibial allografting and instrumentation provide correction of the curvature, prevention of further deformation, improvement of sagittal and coronal balance, and restoration of neurological function in patients with spinal tuberculosis.

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Adem Yılmaz, Nazan Dalgic, Murat Müslüman, Mesut Sancar, Ibrahim Çolak, and Yunus Aydın

Object

The emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria as a cause of ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt infection is a disconcerting phenomenon that often requires the use of alternative antimicrobial agents due to resistance against commonly used medications. Linezolid, a member of a new class of antimicrobial agents, has good activity against virtually all important gram-positive pathogens, including multidrug-resistant gram-positive pathogens. The object of this article is to report a single-center experience with linezolid treatment in 6 young patients with VP shunt infections caused by drug-resistant strains.

Methods

The authors reviewed the records of 6 pediatric patients who developed VP shunt infection and in whom initial antimicrobial treatment regimens, including vancomycin, either failed or were associated with vancomycin-resistant enterococcus. All 6 patients were treated at their hospital between July 1, 2008, and June 29, 2009. The patients' demographic and clinical characteristics, underlying diseases, clinical manifestations, laboratory results, and various treatment modalities used before linezolid therapy were evaluated.

Results

The 6 patients included were 2 boys and 4 girls with a mean (± SD) age of 11.83 ± 12 months (range 4–36 months). Five patients had acquired an infection within 4 months (mean 7.50 ± 13.51 months, range 1–35 months) after shunt insertion. Four patients were treated with external ventricular drainage. Two patients' parents refused to allow shunt removal and placement of an external ventricular drain. The CSF was clear of bacterial growth within a mean of 3.67 ± 1.36 days (range 2–6 days) after initiation of linezolid treatment. The mean duration of linezolid treatment was 18.17 ± 3.31 days (range 14–21 days). Microbiological clearance of CSF and clinical cure were achieved in all patients. No laboratory or clinical side effects were observed during the treatment period. The mean length of hospital stay was 22.8 ± 4.96 days (range 17–28 days).

Conclusions

Linezolid could be an appropriate treatment alternative in children with ventriculostomy-related CSF infections caused by drug-resistant strains, including cases in which shunt removal is not an option. Well-designed prospective studies providing additional information on linezolid levels in plasma and CSF are necessary to confirm the authors' observations.

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Ahmet Murat Müslüman, Adem Yılmaz, Tufan Cansever, Halit Çavuşoğlu, İbrahim Çolak, H. Ali Genç, and Yunus Aydın

Object

The purpose of this study was to compare the methods of posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) and posterolateral fusion (PLF) in cases of isthmic Grades 1 and 2 lumbar spondylolisthesis, and to evaluate the clinical efficacy of the procedures.

Methods

Operations were performed in 50 patients with lumbar spondylolisthesis in the authors' clinics between 2001 and 2007. Indications for surgery were low-back pain with or without sciatica and neurogenic claudication that had not improved after at least 6 months of conservative treatment. The study included 33 female and 17 male patients, with mean ages of 50.6 years in the PLIF group and 47.3 years in the PLF group.

These patients were randomly allocated into 2 groups: decompression, posterior transpedicular instrumentation, and PLF (Group 1; 25 patients) and decompression, posterior transpedicular instrumentation, and PLIF (Group 2; 25 patients). In the PLIF group, titanium cages were used, and autograft material was obtained from the decompression. In the PLF group, bone fragments collected from the iliac crest were used as autografts. A minimum 18-month follow-up was available in all patients. For clinical evaluation, a visual analog scale, Oswestry Disability Index, and the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey were used. Improvements in pre- and postoperative spondylolisthesis, segmental angles, fusion ratios, and postoperative complications were evaluated radiologically.

Results

The average follow-up period was 3.3 years. Based on the etiologies, isthmic spondylolisthesis was detected in all patients. The spondylolisthesis levels in the patients who underwent PLIF were located at L3–4 (5 patients, 20%); L4–5 (14, 56%); and L5–S1 (6, 24%), whereas the levels in the ones treated with PLF were located at L3–4 (4 patients, 16%); L4–5 (13, 52%); and L5–S1 (8, 32%). In the clinical evaluations, good or excellent results were obtained in 22 (88%) cases in the PLIF group and 19 (76%) cases in the PLF group. Fusion ratios were 100% in the PLIF group and 84% in the PLF group. Both lumbar lordosis and the segmental angle showed greater improvement in the PLIF group. There was no difference in the complication rates for each group.

Conclusions

Based on early clinical outcomes and the fusion ratios of adult isthmic spondylolisthesis, the authors found PLIF to be superior to PLF.

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Oral Presentations

2010 AANS Annual Meeting Philadelphia, Pennsylvania May 1–5, 2010