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Juneyoung Heo, Sukh Que Park, Sung Jin Cho, Jae Chil Chang and Hyung-ki Park

Object

Some patients with severe brain swelling treated with decompressive craniectomy may develop hydrocephalus. Consequently, these patients require cranioplasty and a ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt to relieve the hydrocephalus. However, there is no consensus as to the timing of the cranioplasty and VP shunt placement in patients requiring both. The authors assessed the results of performing cranioplasty and VP shunt placement at the same time in patients with cranial defects and hydrocephalus.

Methods

A retrospective review was performed of 51 patients who had undergone cranioplasty and VP shunt operations after decompressive craniectomy for refractory intracranial hypertension between 2003 and 2012 at the authors' institution. Patient characteristics, data on whether the operations were performed simultaneously, brain bulging, hydrocephalus, cranial defect size, and complications were analyzed.

Results

The overall complication rate was 43% (22 of 51 patients). In 32 cases, cranioplasty and VP shunt placement were performed at the same time. Complications included subdural hematoma, subdural fluid collection, and infection. The group undergoing cranioplasty and VP shunt placement at the same time had higher complication rates than the group undergoing the procedures at different times (56% vs 21%, respectively). The severity of complications was also greater in the former group. Patients with severe brain bulging had higher complication rates than did those without brain bulging (51% vs 0%, respectively). Cranial defect size, severity of hydrocephalus, indication for decompressive craniectomy, age, sex, and interval between decompressive craniectomy and subsequent operation did not affect complication rates.

Conclusions

Patients undergoing cranioplasty and VP shunt placement at the same time had higher complication rates, especially those with severe brain bulging.

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Alice Cherqui, Daniel H. Kim, Se-Hoon Kim, Hyung-Ki Park and David G. Kline

Object

The goal of this study was to analyze the results of surgical treatment of paraspinal nerve sheath tumors (NSTs) and review the surgical approaches to paraspinal NSTs.

Methods

A retrospective review of the cases of paraspinal NSTs treated surgically by two senior authors during the period between 1970 and 2006 was undertaken. Surgical approaches that allow minimal disruption of normal anatomy and are aimed at complete resection of paraspinal lesions and preservation of spinal stability are reviewed according to the spinal level.

Results

Eighty-eight paraspinal NSTs were treated surgically during the period: 56 schwannomas, seven solitary neurofibromas, 21 neurofibromas associated with neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1), and four malignant peripheral NSTs. Schwannomas tended to occur in the cervical and thoracic areas. Neurofibromas were usually associated with NF1 and tended to occur in the cervical area. Pain (79 patients, 90%) and paresthesia (81 patients, 92%) were the predominant clinical presenting symptoms; others included weakness (28 patients) and myelopathy (12 patients). Total resection of the tumor was achieved in 50 patients (89.3%) with schwannomas and 22 patients (78.6%) with neurofibromas. There was a large reduction of pain in 70 (88.6%) of 79 patients who had preoperative pain, and weakness improved in 18 (64.3%) of 28. Postoperative transient weakness occurred in 12 (42.9% ) of these patients, but in 85% of this group, the symptom improved over a 12-month period. Myelopathy was reduced in eight (66.7%) of 12 patients. The average follow-up period was 18 months.

Conclusions

Paraspinal NSTs present unique surgical challenges given their anatomical relationships to the spine, spinal cord, nerve roots, and major vasculature. The surgical technique should take into account the location of the lesion and its relationship to paraspinal anatomy, the extent of resection, sparing of normal anatomy, and spinal instability.

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Yong-Jun Cho, Chi Hern Lee, Dae Won Kim, Ki-Yeon Yoo, Won Sik Eum, Min Jea Shin, Hyo Sang Jo, Jinseu Park, Kyu Hyung Han, Keun Wook Lee and Soo Young Choi

The authors investigated the effects of a silk solution against laminectomy-induced dural adhesion formation and inflammation in a rat model. They found that it significantly reduced postlaminectomy dural adhesion formation and inflammation. Dural adhesion formation, thought to be an inevitable consequence of laminectomy, is one of the most common complications following spinal surgery, and the authors' results indicate that the silk solution might be a potential novel therapeutic agent for dural adhesion formation.

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Tae Hoon Roh, Seok-Gu Kang, Ju Hyung Moon, Kyoung Su Sung, Hun Ho Park, Se Hoon Kim, Eui Hyun Kim, Chang-Ki Hong, Chang-Ok Suh and Jong Hee Chang

OBJECTIVE

Following resection of glioblastoma (GBM), microscopic remnants of the GBM tumor remaining in nearby tissue cause tumor recurrence more often than for other types of tumors, even after gross-total resection (GTR). Although surgical oncologists traditionally resect some of the surrounding normal tissue, whether further removal of nearby tissue may improve survival in GBM patients is unknown. In this single-center retrospective study, the authors assessed whether lobectomy confers a survival benefit over GTR without lobectomy when treating GBMs in the noneloquent area.

METHODS

The authors selected 40 patients who had undergone GTR of a histopathologically diagnosed isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)–wild type GBM in the right frontal or temporal lobe and divided the patients into 2 groups according to whether GTR of the tumor involved lobectomy, defined as a supratotal resection (SupTR group, n = 20) or did not (GTR group, n = 20). Progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) scores were compared between groups (p ≤ 0.05 for statistically significant differences).

RESULTS

The median postoperative PFS times for each group were as follows: GTR group, 11.5 months (95% CI 8.8–14.2) and SupTR group, 30.7 months (95% CI 4.3–57.1; p = 0.007). The median postoperative OS times for each group were as follows: GTR group, 18.7 months (95% CI 14.3–23.1) and SupTR group, 44.1 months (95% CI 25.1–63.1; p = 0.040). The mean postoperative KPS scores (GTR, 76.5; SupTR, 77.5; p = 0.904) were not significantly different. In multivariate analysis, survival for the SupTR group was significantly longer than that for the GTR group in terms of both PFS (HR 0.230; 95% CI 0.090–0.583; p = 0.002) and OS (HR 0.247; 95% CI 0.086–0.704; p = 0.009).

CONCLUSIONS

In cases of completely resectable, noneloquent-area GBMs, SupTR provides superior PFS and OS without negatively impacting patient performance.