Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 10 items for

  • Author or Editor: Hyun-Jin Hong x
Clear All Modify Search
Full access

Jung Jae Park, Hong Joo Moon, Jin Hyun Park, Taek Hyun Kwon, Youn-Kwan Park and Joo Han Kim

OBJECT

To determine the role played by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling in the interactions between macrophages and intervertebral disc (IVD) cells, it was hypothesized that MAPK inhibition would modulate the production of the proinflammatory cytokines associated with inflammatory reaction in IVD cells.

METHODS

Human annulus fibrosus (AF) and nucleus pulposus (NP) cells were cocultured with phorbol myristate acetate-stimulated macrophage-like THP-1 cells, with and without SB202190 (a p38-α and -β inhibitor), SP600125 (a c-Jun N-terminal kinase [JNK] inhibitor), and PD98059 (an extracellular signal-regulated kinase [ERK] 1/2 inhibitor). The cytokines in conditioned media from cocultured and macrophage-exposed (nemotic) cells were assayed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs).

RESULTS

Interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 were secreted in greater quantities by the cocultured cells compared with naive IVD cells and macrophages (MΦ) cultured alone. The tumor necrosis factor (TNF)- α and IL-6 levels produced by the NP cells cocultured with MΦs (NP-MΦ) were significantly lower than those produced by AF cells cocultured with MΦs (AF-MΦ). SB202190 dose-dependently suppressed IL-6 secretion by AF-MΦ and NP-MΦ cocultures, and 10 μM SB202190 significantly decreased IL-6 and IL-8 production in nemotic AF and NP pellets. SP600125 at 10 μM significantly suppressed the production of TNF α IL-6. and IL-8 in AF-MΦ and NP-MΦ cocultures and significantly suppressed IL-1β production in the NP-MΦ coculture. Administration of 10 μM PD98059 significantly decreased IL-6 levels in the AF-MΦ coculture, and decreased the levels of TNF α and IL-8 in both the AF-MΦ and NP-MΦ cocultures.

CONCLUSIONS

The present study shows that inhibitors of p38 MAPK effectively controlled IL-6 production during inflammatory reactions and that JNK and ERK1/2 inhibitors successfully suppressed the production of major proinflammatory cytokines during interactions between macrophages and IVD cells. Therefore, selective blockade of these signals may serve as a therapeutic approach to symptomatic IVD degeneration.

Restricted access

Joonho Chung, Sang Hyun Suh, Chang-Ki Hong, Jin-Yang Joo, Yong Cheol Lim, Yong Sam Shin and Yong Bae Kim

OBJECT

The purpose of this study was to report the authors' preliminary experience using self-expanding closed-cell stents deployed in small arteries (< 2 mm in diameter) to treat intracranial aneurysms.

METHODS

A total of 31 patients were studied. All subjects met the following criteria: 1) they received an Enterprise stent for treatment of a wide-necked aneurysm or a dissecting aneurysm or as part of a stent-salvage procedure; and 2) they had an Enterprise stent deployed in a small parent artery (< 2 mm in diameter) that had no atherosclerotic stenosis. Procedure-related complications and follow-up sizes of the parent arteries were evaluated for safety and patency.

RESULTS

There were 16 ruptured aneurysms and 15 unruptured aneurysms. Three (9.7%) of the 31 patients experienced procedure-related complications, and they all were asymptomatic. Follow-up angiography was performed in 27 patients (87.1%) (at a mean 15.5 months after surgery). Parent arteries with 2 acute angles (n = 4) were occluded in 3 cases (75.0%), and those with no acute angles (n = 13) or 1 acute angle (n = 6) showed 100% patency on follow-up angiography. There was a significant difference between the follow-up sizes (mean 1.72 ± 0.30 mm) of parent arteries and their sizes (mean 1.59 ± 0.26 mm) before treatment (95% CI − 0.254 to − 0.009 mm; p = 0.037, paired-samples t-test).

CONCLUSIONS

In the current series the deployment of self-expanding closed-cell stents in small arteries was safe and resulted in good patency, especially when the stents were deployed in segments of the parent artery with no acute angles or only 1 acute angle.

Restricted access

Jung-Il Lee, Do-Hyun Nam, Jong Soo Kim, Seung-Chyul Hong, Hyung-Jin Shin, Kwan Park, Whan Eoh, Yeon-Lim Suh and Jong Hyun Kim

Restricted access

Seung-Chyul Hong, Kwan-Soo Kang, Dae Won Seo, Seung Bong Hong, Munhyang Lee, Do-Hyun Nam, Jung-Il Lee, Jong Soo Kim, Hyung-Jin Shin, Kwan Park, Whan Eoh, Yeon-Lim Suh and Jong-Hyun Kim

Object. Surgical treatment of cortical dysplasia (CD) together with intractable seizures is challenging because both visualization and localization of the lesion are difficult, correlation with seizure foci requires comprehensive study, and the surgical outcomes reported thus far are unsatisfactory. The authors report their experience in the surgical treatment of CD classified according to a surgical point of view.

Methods. The definition of CD used in this study was a dysplastic lesion visible on magnetic resonance (MR) images or a lesion that, although not visible on MR images, was diagnosed as moderate-to-severe dysplasia by using pathological analysis. During the last 4.5 years, the authors treated 36 patients with intractable epilepsy accompanied by CD. They divided the 36 cases of CD into four characteristic groups: Group A, diffuse bilateral hemispheric dysplasia; Group B, diffuse lobar dysplasia; Group C, focal dysplasia; and Group D, a moderate to severe degree of CD with a normal appearance on MR images. All but one patient in Group C were monitored in the epilepsy monitoring unit by using subdural electrodes for seizure localization and functional mapping.

The incidence of CD among a cohort of 291 patients who had undergone epilepsy surgery at the authors' center during the study period was 12.4%. The mean age of the 36 patients was 21.3 years and the mean age at seizure onset was 8.5 years. The mean follow-up period was 26 months. Twenty-six patients (72.2%) belonged to Engel Class I or II (20 and six, respectively). There were five cases in Group A, nine in Group B, nine in Group C, and 13 in Group D. Patients in Groups A and B were significantly younger at seizure onset and had significantly poorer surgical outcomes compared with patients in Groups C and D (p < 0.05). If outcome is compared on the basis of the extent of removal of CD, patients in whom CD was completely removed had significantly better outcomes than those in whom CD was only partially removed (p < 0.001).

Conclusions. The authors conclude that intractable epilepsy accompanied by CD can be treated surgically using comprehensive preoperative approaches. Deliberate resective procedures aimed at complete removal of dysplastic tissue ensure excellent seizure control without permanent neurological deficit.

Restricted access

Eun Jung Lee, Jeong Hoon Kim, Eun Suk Park, Young-Hoon Kim, Jae Koo Lee, Seok Ho Hong, Young Hyun Cho and Chang Jin Kim

OBJECTIVE

Advances in neuroimaging techniques have led to the increased detection of asymptomatic intracranial meningiomas (IMs). Despite several studies on the natural history of IMs, a comprehensive evaluation method for estimating the growth potential of these tumors, based on the relative weight of each risk factor, has not been developed. The aim of this study was to develop a weighted scoring system that estimates the risk of rapid tumor growth to aid treatment decision making.

METHODS

The authors performed a retrospective analysis of 232 patients with presumed IM who had been prospectively followed up in the absence of treatment from 1997 to 2013. Tumor volume was measured by imaging at each follow-up visit, and the growth rate was determined by regression analysis. Predictors of rapid tumor growth (defined as ≥ 2 cm3/year) were identified using a logistic regression model; each factor was awarded a score based on its own coefficient value. The probability (P) of rapid tumor growth was estimated using the following formula:

FD1

RESULTS

Fifty-nine tumors (25.4%) showed rapid growth. Tumor size (OR per cm3 1.07, p = 0.000), absence of calcification (OR 3.87, p = 0.004), peritumoral edema (OR 2.74, p = 0.025), and hyperintense or isointense signal on T2-weighted MRI (OR 3.76, p = 0.049) were predictors of tumor growth rate. In the Asan Intracranial Meningioma Scoring System (AIMSS), tumor size was categorized into 3 groups of < 2.5 cm, ≥ 2.5 to < 4.0 cm, and ≥ 4.0 cm in diameter and awarded a score of 0, 3, and 6, respectively; the parameters of calcification and peritumoral edema were categorized into 2 groups based on their presence or absence and given a score of 0 or 2 and 1 or 0, respectively; and the signal on T2-weighted MRI was categorized into 2 groups of hypointense and hyperintense/isointense and given a score of 0 or 2, respectively. The risk of rapid tumor growth was estimated to be < 10% when the total score was 0–2, 10%–50% when the total score was 3–6, and ≥ 50% when the total score was 7–11 (Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test, p = 0.9958). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.86.

CONCLUSIONS

The authors suggest a weighted scoring system (AIMSS) that predicts the specific probability of rapid tumor growth for patients with untreated IM. This scoring system will aid treatment decision making in clinical settings by screening out patients at high risk for rapid tumor growth.

Restricted access

Yong Ahn, Jin Uk Kim, Byung Hoi Lee, Sang-Ho Lee, Jong Dae Park, Dong Hyun Hong and June Ho Lee

Object

The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the clinical characteristics of postoperative retroperitoneal hematoma (RPH) following transforaminal percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy (PELD) and to discuss how to prevent the complication of unintended hemorrhage.

Methods

The medical records of 412 consecutive patients treated with transforaminal PELD between January 2005 and May 2007 were reviewed. A total of 4 patients (0.97%) experienced symptomatic postoperative RPH. The clinical outcomes were evaluated using the visual analog scale and the Oswestry Disability Index.

Results

The common symptom in all patients with a hematoma was inguinal pain. The mean hematoma volume was 527.9 ml (range 53.3–1274.1 ml). Two patients with massive diffuse-type RPHs compressing the intraabdominal structures required open hematoma evacuation performed by general surgeons, and the other 2 patients with small, localized RPHs of < 100 ml were treated conservatively. The mean follow-up period was 21.3 months (range 13–29 months). The mean visual analog scale score for radicular leg pain improved from 7.6 to 1.8 and that for back pain improved from 4.3 to 2. The mean Oswestry Disability Index improved from 58.8 to 9.1%. The preoperative symptoms improved after the second treatment without significant neurological sequelae in all patients.

Conclusions

Although transforaminal PELD is a minimally invasive and safe procedure, the possibility of RPH should be kept in mind. Adequate technical and anatomical considerations are important to avoid this unusual hemorrhagic complication, especially in the patient with underlying medical problems or previous operative scarring. A high index of suspicion and early detection is also important to avoid the progression of the hematoma.

Restricted access

Yun-Sik Dho, Young Jae Kim, Kwang Gi Kim, Sung Hwan Hwang, Kyung Hyun Kim, Jin Wook Kim, Yong Hwy Kim, Seung Hong Choi and Chul-Kee Park

OBJECTIVE

The aim of this study was to analyze the positional effect of MRI on the accuracy of neuronavigational localization for posterior fossa (PF) lesions when the operation is performed with the patient in the prone position.

METHODS

Ten patients with PF tumors requiring surgery in the prone position were prospectively enrolled in the study. All patients underwent preoperative navigational MRI in both the supine and prone positions in a single session. Using simultaneous intraoperative registration of the supine and prone navigational MR images, the authors investigated the images’ accuracy, spatial deformity, and source of errors for PF lesions. Accuracy was determined in terms of differences in the ability of the supine and prone MR images to localize 64 test points in the PF by using a neuronavigation system. Spatial deformities were analyzed and visualized by in-house–developed software with a 3D reconstruction function and spatial calculation of the MRI data. To identify the source of differences, the authors investigated the accuracy of fiducial point localization in the supine and prone MR images after taking the surface anatomy and age factors into consideration.

RESULTS

Neuronavigational localization performed using prone MRI was more accurate for PF lesions than routine supine MRI prior to prone position surgery. Prone MRI more accurately localized 93.8% of the tested PF areas than supine MRI. The spatial deformities in the neuronavigation system calculated using the supine MRI tended to move in the posterior-superior direction from the actual anatomical landmarks. The average distance of the spatial differences between the prone and supine MR images was 6.3 mm. The spatial difference had a tendency to increase close to the midline. An older age (> 60 years) and fiducial markers adjacent to the cervical muscles were considered to contribute significantly to the source of differences in the positional effect of neuronavigation (p < 0.001 and p = 0.01, respectively).

CONCLUSIONS

This study demonstrated the superior accuracy of neuronavigational localization with prone-position MRI during prone-position surgery for PF lesions. The authors recommend that the scan position of the neuronavigational MRI be matched with the surgical position for more precise localization.

Restricted access

Doo-Sik Kong, Stephanie Ming Young, Chang-Ki Hong, Yoon-Duck Kim, Sang Duk Hong, Jung Won Choi, Ho Jun Seol, Jung-Il Lee, Hyung Jin Shin, Do-Hyun Nam and Kyung In Woo

OBJECTIVE

Cranioorbital tumors are complex lesions that involve the deep orbit, floor of the frontal bone, and lesser and greater wing of the sphenoid bone. The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical and ophthalmological outcomes with an endoscopic transorbital approach (TOA) in the management of cranioorbital tumors involving the deep orbit and intracranial compartment.

METHODS

The authors performed endoscopic TOAs via the superior eyelid crease incision in 18 patients (16 TOA alone and 2 TOA combined with a simultaneous endonasal endoscopic resection) with cranioorbital tumors from September 2016 to November 2017. There were 12 patients with sphenoorbital meningiomas. Other lesions included osteosarcoma, plasmacytoma, sebaceous gland carcinoma, intraconal schwannoma, cystic teratoma, and fibrous dysplasia. Ten patients had primary lesions and 8 patients had recurrent tumors. Thirteen patients had intradural lesions, while 5 had only extradural lesions.

RESULTS

Of 18 patients, 7 patients underwent gross-total resection of the tumor and 7 patients underwent planned near-total resection of the tumor, leaving the cavernous sinus lesion. Subtotal resection was performed in 4 patients with recurrent tumors. There was no postoperative CSF leak requiring reconstruction surgery. Fourteen of 18 patients (77.8%) had preoperative proptosis on the ipsilateral side, and all 14 patients had improvement in exophthalmos; the mean proptosis reduced from 5.7 ± 2.7 mm to 1.5 ± 1.4 mm. However, some residual proptosis was evident in 9 of the 14 (64%). Ten of 18 patients (55.6%) had preoperative optic neuropathy, and 6 of them (60.0%) had improvement; the median best-corrected visual acuity improved from 20/100 to 20/40. Thirteen of 18 patients showed mild ptosis at an immediate postoperative examination, all of whom had a spontaneous and complete recovery of their ptosis during the follow-up period. Three of 7 patients showed improvement in extraocular motility after surgery.

CONCLUSIONS

Endoscopic TOA can be considered as an option in the management of cranioorbital tumors involving complex anatomical areas, with acceptable sequelae and morbidity.

Full access

Roh-Eul Yoo, Tae Jin Yun, Young Dae Cho, Jung Hyo Rhim, Koung Mi Kang, Seung Hong Choi, Ji-hoon Kim, Jeong Eun Kim, Hyun-Seung Kang, Chul-Ho Sohn, Sun-Won Park and Moon Hee Han

OBJECTIVE

Arterial spin labeling perfusion-weighted imaging (ASL-PWI) enables quantification of tissue perfusion without contrast media administration. The aim of this study was to explore whether cerebral blood flow (CBF) from ASL-PWI can reliably predict angiographic vascularity of meningiomas.

METHODS

Twenty-seven patients with intracranial meningiomas, who had undergone preoperative ASL-PWI and digital subtraction angiography prior to resection, were included. Angiographic vascularity was assessed using a 4-point grading scale and meningiomas were classified into 2 groups: low vascularity (Grades 0 and 1; n = 11) and high vascularity (Grades 2 and 3; n = 16). Absolute CBF, measured at the largest section of the tumor, was normalized to the contralateral gray matter. Correlation between the mean normalized CBF (nCBF) and angiographic vascularity was determined and the mean nCBF values of the 2 groups were compared. Diagnostic performance of the nCBF for differentiating between the 2 groups was assessed.

RESULTS

The nCBF had a significant positive correlation with angiographic vascularity (ρ = 0.718; p < 0.001). The high-vascularity group had a significantly higher nCBF than the low-vascularity group (3.334 ± 2.768 and 0.909 ± 0.468, respectively; p = 0.003). At the optimal nCBF cutoff value of 1.733, sensitivity and specificity for the differential diagnosis of the 2 groups were 69% (95% CI 41%–89%) and 100% (95% CI 72%–100%), respectively. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.875 (p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS

ASL-PWI may provide a reliable and noninvasive means of predicting angiographic vascularity of meningiomas. It may thus assist in selecting potential candidates for preoperative digital subtraction angiography and embolization in clinical practice.