Zongli Han, Hui Qi, Wei Yin and Yanli Du
Miaomiao Suo, Yahui Lin, Hui Yu, Weihua Song, Kai Sun, Yan Song, Yinhui Zhang, Channa Zhang, Yufang Zhu, Qi Pang, Rutai Hui and Jingzhou Chen
Variants of Kallikreins have been shown to be risk factors for intracranial aneurysm (IA) in a Finnish population. In the present study, the authors investigated the correlation between polymorphisms in the Kallikrein gene cluster and IAs in the Chinese population.
The association of Kallikrein variants (rs1722561 and rs1701946) with sporadic IAs was tested in 308 cases and 443 controls. The differences in allelic frequencies between patients and the control group were evaluated with the chi-square test.
The C allele of rs1722561 showed a significant reduction in the risk of sporadic IA (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.53–0.95; p = 0.023). However, no association of the variant rs1701946 with sporadic IA was found (OR 0.78, 95% CI 0.57–1.06; p = 0.115).
The variant rs1722561 of Kallikreins might reduce the risk of sporadic IAs among individuals of Chinese Han ethnicity. This study confirms the association between Kallikreins and IAs.
Jian-Hua Zhong, Hua-Jun Zhou, Tao Tang, Han-Jin Cui, A-Li Yang, Qi-Mei Zhang, Jing-Hua Zhou, Qiang Zhang, Xun Gong, Zhao-Hui Zhang and Zhi-Gang Mei
Reactive astrogliosis, a key feature that is characterized by glial proliferation, has been observed in rat brains after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). However, the mechanisms that control reactive astrogliosis formation remain unknown. Notch-1 signaling plays a critical role in modulating reactive astrogliosis. The purpose of this paper was to establish whether Notch-1 signaling is involved in reactive astrogliosis after ICH.
ICH was induced in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats via stereotactic injection of autologous blood into the right globus pallidus. N-[N-(3,5-difluorophenacetyl)-l-alanyl]-S-phenylglycine t-butyl ester (DAPT) was injected into the lateral ventricle to block Notch-1 signaling. The rats’ brains were perfused to identify proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-positive/GFAP-positive nuclei. The expression of GFAP, Notch-1, and the activated form of Notch-1 (Notch intracellular domain [NICD]) and its ligand Jagged-1 was assessed using immunohistochemical and Western blot analyses, respectively.
Notch-1 signaling was upregulated and activated after ICH as confirmed by an increase in the expression of Notch-1 and NICD and its ligand Jagged-1. Remarkably, blockade of Notch-1 signaling with the specific inhibitor DAPT suppressed astrocytic proliferation and GFAP levels caused by ICH. In addition, DAPT improved neurological outcome after ICH.
Notch-1 signaling is a critical regulator of ICH-induced reactive astrogliosis, and its blockage may be a potential therapeutic strategy for hemorrhagic injury.