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Hideaki Tanaka, Jean Gotman, Hui Ming Khoo, André Olivier, Jeffery Hall, and François Dubeau

OBJECTIVE

The authors sought to determine which neurophysiological seizure-onset features seen during scalp electroencephalography (EEG) and intracerebral EEG (iEEG) monitoring are predictors of postoperative outcome in a large series of patients with drug-resistant focal epilepsy who underwent resective surgery.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively analyzed the records of 75 consecutive patients with focal epilepsy, who first underwent scalp EEG and then iEEG (stereo-EEG) for presurgical assessment and who went on to undergo resective surgery between 2004 and 2015. To determine the independent prognostic factors from the neurophysiological scalp EEG and iEEG seizure-onset information, univariate and standard multivariable logistic regression analyses were used. Since scalp EEG and iEEG data were recorded at different times, the authors matched scalp seizures with intracerebral seizures for each patient using strict criteria.

RESULTS

A total of 3057 seizures were assessed. Forty-eight percent (36/75) of patients had a favorable outcome (Engel class I–II) after a minimum follow-up of at least 1 year. According to univariate analysis, a localized scalp EEG seizure onset (p < 0.001), a multilobar intracerebral seizure-onset zone (SOZ) (p < 0.001), and an extended SOZ (p = 0.001) were significantly associated with surgical outcome. According to multivariable analysis, the following two independent factors were found: 1) the ability of scalp EEG to localize the seizure onset was a predictor of a favorable postoperative outcome (OR 6.073, 95% CI 2.011–18.339, p = 0.001), and 2) a multilobar SOZ was a predictor of an unfavorable outcome (OR 0.076, 95% CI 0.009–0.663, p = 0.020).

CONCLUSIONS

The study findings show that localization at scalp seizure onset and a multilobar SOZ were strong predictors of surgical outcome. These predictors can help to select the better candidates for resective surgery.

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Hui Ming Khoo, Haruhiko Kishima, Naoki Tani, Satoru Oshino, Tomoyuki Maruo, Koichi Hosomi, Takufumi Yanagisawa, Hiroaki Kazui, Yoshiyuki Watanabe, Toshio Shimokawa, Toshihiko Aso, Atsushi Kawaguchi, Fumio Yamashita, Youichi Saitoh, and Toshiki Yoshimine

OBJECT

Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is a neurological disorder characterized by gait disturbance, cognitive impairment, and incontinence. It is unclear whether the pathophysiology of iNPH is associated with alterations in the default mode network (DMN). The authors investigated alterations in the DMN of patients with iNPH and sought to determine whether a relationship exists between the resting-state functional connectivity of the DMN and a patient’s clinical symptoms.

METHODS

Resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) was performed in 16 preoperative patients with iNPH and 15 neurologically healthy control subjects of a similar age. Independent component and dual-regression analyses were used to quantify DMN connectivity. The patients’ clinical symptoms were rated according to the iNPH grading scale (iNPHGS). Each of their specific clinical symptoms were rated according to the cognitive, gait, and urinary continence domains of iNPHGS, and neurocognitive status was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination, Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB), and Trail Making Test Part A. The strength of DMN connectivity was compared between patients and controls, and the correlation between DMN connectivity and iNPHGS was examined using both region of interest (ROI)-based analysis and voxel-based analysis. The correlation between DMN connectivity and each of the specific clinical symptoms, as well as neurocognitive status, was examined using voxel-based analysis.

RESULTS

Both ROI-based and voxel-based analyses revealed reduced DMN connectivity in patients with iNPH. ROI-based analysis showed increased DMN connectivity with worsening clinical symptoms of iNPH. Consistently, voxel-based analyses revealed that DMN connectivity correlated positively with the iNPHGS score, as well as the cognitive and urinary continence domain scores, and negatively with the FAB score. The significant peak in correlation in each case was localized to the precuneus.

CONCLUSIONS

This is the first study to establish alterations in the DMN of patients with iNPH. DMN connectivity may be a useful indicator of the severity of clinical symptoms in patients with iNPH.

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Naoki Tani, Haruhiko Kishima, Hui Ming Khoo, Takufumi Yanagisawa, Satoru Oshino, Tomoyuki Maruo, Koichi Hosomi, Masayuki Hirata, Hiroaki Kazui, Keiko Tokumasu Nomura, Mohamed M. Aly, Amami Kato, and Toshiki Yoshimine

OBJECTIVE

Epilepsy surgery is of known benefit for drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE); however, a certain number of patients suffer significant decline in verbal memory after hippocampectomy. To prevent this disabling complication, a reliable test for predicting postoperative memory decline is greatly desired. Therefore, the authors assessed the value of electrical stimulation of the parahippocampal gyrus (PHG) as a provocation test of verbal memory decline after hippocampectomy on the dominant side.

METHODS

Eleven right-handed, Japanese-speaking patients with medically intractable left TLE participated in the study. Before surgery, they underwent provocative testing via electrical stimulation of the left PHG during a verbal encoding task. Their pre- and posthippocampectomy memory function was evaluated according to the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) and/or Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) before and 6 months after surgery. The relationship between postsurgical memory decline and results of the provocative test was evaluated.

RESULTS

Left hippocampectomy was performed in 7 of the 11 patients. In 3 patients with a positive provocative recognition test, verbal memory function, as assessed by the WMS-R, decreased after hippocampectomy, whereas in 4 patients with a negative provocative recognition test, verbal memory function, as assessed by the WMS-R or MMSE, was preserved.

CONCLUSIONS

Results of the present study suggest that electrical stimulation of the PHG is a reliable provocative test to predict posthippocampectomy verbal memory decline.

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Solon Schur, Jeremy T. Moreau, Hui Ming Khoo, Andreas Koupparis, Elisabeth Simard Tremblay, Kenneth A. Myers, Bradley Osterman, Bernard Rosenblatt, Jean-Pierre Farmer, Christine Saint-Martin, Sophie Turpin, Jeff Hall, Andre Olivier, Andrea Bernasconi, Neda Bernasconi, Sylvain Baillet, Francois Dubeau, Jean Gotman, and Roy W. R. Dudley

OBJECTIVE

In an attempt to improve postsurgical seizure outcomes for poorly defined cases (PDCs) of pediatric focal epilepsy (i.e., those that are not visible or well defined on 3T MRI), the authors modified their presurgical evaluation strategy. Instead of relying on concordance between video-electroencephalography and 3T MRI and using functional imaging and intracranial recording in select cases, the authors systematically used a multimodal, 3-tiered investigation protocol that also involved new collaborations between their hospital, the Montreal Children’s Hospital, and the Montreal Neurological Institute. In this study, the authors examined how their new strategy has impacted postsurgical outcomes. They hypothesized that it would improve postsurgical seizure outcomes, with the added benefit of identifying a subset of tests contributing the most.

METHODS

Chart review was performed for children with PDCs who underwent resection following the new strategy (i.e., new protocol [NP]), and for the same number who underwent treatment previously (i.e., preprotocol [PP]); ≥ 1-year follow-up was required for inclusion. Well-defined, multifocal, and diffuse hemispheric cases were excluded. Preoperative demographics and clinical characteristics, resection volumes, and pathology, as well as seizure outcomes (Engel class Ia vs > Ia) at 1 year postsurgery and last follow-up were reviewed.

RESULTS

Twenty-two consecutive NP patients were compared with 22 PP patients. There was no difference between the two groups for resection volumes, pathology, or preoperative characteristics, except that the NP group underwent more presurgical evaluation tests (p < 0.001). At 1 year postsurgery, 20 of 22 NP patients and 10 of 22 PP patients were seizure free (OR 11.81, 95% CI 2.00–69.68; p = 0.006). Magnetoencephalography and PET/MRI were associated with improved postsurgical seizure outcomes, but both were highly correlated with the protocol group (i.e., independent test effects could not be demonstrated).

CONCLUSIONS

A new presurgical evaluation strategy for children with PDCs of focal epilepsy led to improved postsurgical seizure freedom. No individual presurgical evaluation test was independently associated with improved outcome, suggesting that it may be the combined systematic protocol and new interinstitutional collaborations that makes the difference rather than any individual test.