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Sheng-Tzung Tsai, Hsiang-Yi Hung, Chien-Hui Lee and Shin-Yuan Chen

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Sheng-Tzung Tsai, Wei-Yi Chuang, Chung-Chih Kuo, Paul C. P. Chao, Tsung-Ying Chen, Hsiang-Yi Hung and Shin-Yuan Chen


Deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery under general anesthesia is an alternative option for patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, few studies are available that report whether neuronal firing can be accurately recorded during this condition. In this study the authors attempted to characterize the neuronal activity of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and elucidate the influence of general anesthetics on neurons during DBS surgery in patients with PD. The benefit of median nerve stimulation (MNS) for localization of the dorsolateral subterritory of the STN, which is involved in sensorimotor function, was explored.


Eight patients with PD were anesthetized with desflurane and underwent contralateral MNS at the wrist during microelectrode recording of the STN. The authors analyzed the spiking patterns and power spectral density (PSD) of the background activity along each penetration track and determined the spatial correlation to the target location, estimated mated using standard neurophysiological procedures.


The dorsolateral STN spiking pattern showed a more prominent bursting pattern without MNS and more oscillation with MNS. In terms of the neural oscillation of the background activity, beta-band oscillation dominated within the sensorimotor STN and showed significantly more PSD during MNS (p < 0.05).


Neuronal firing within the STN could be accurately identified and differentiated when patients with PD received general anesthetics. Median nerve stimulation can enhance the neural activity in beta-band oscillations, which can be used as an index to ensure optimal electrode placement via successfully tracked dorsolateral STN topography.

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Chien-Chen Chou, Cheng-Chia Lee, Chun-Fu Lin, Yi-Hsiu Chen, Syu-Jyun Peng, Fu-Jung Hsiao, Hsiang-Yu Yu, Chien Chen, Hsin-Hung Chen and Yang-Hsin Shih


The semiology of cingulate gyrus epilepsy is varied and may involve the paracentral area, the adjacent limbic system, and/or the orbitofrontal gyrus. Invasive electroencephalography (iEEG) recording is usually required for patients with deeply located epileptogenic foci. This paper reports on the authors’ experiences in the diagnosis and surgical treatment of patients with focal epilepsy originating in the cingulate gyrus.


Eighteen patients (median age 24 years, range 5–53 years) with a mean seizure history of 23 years (range 2–32 years) were analyzed retrospectively. The results of presurgical evaluation, surgical strategy, and postoperative pathology are reported, as well as follow-up concerning functional morbidity and seizures (median follow-up 7 years, range 2–12 years).


Patients with cingulate gyrus epilepsy presented with a variety of semiologies and scalp EEG patterns. Prior to ictal onset, 11 (61%) of the patients presented with aura. Initial ictal symptoms included limb posturing in 12 (67%), vocalization in 5, and hypermotor movement in 4. In most patients (n = 16, 89%), ictal EEG presented as widespread patterns with bilateral hemispheric origin, as well as muscle artifacts obscuring the onset of EEG during the ictal period in 11 patients. Among the 18 patients who underwent resection, the pathology revealed mild malformation of cortical development in 2, focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) Ib in 4, FCD IIa in 4, FCD IIb in 4, astrocytoma in 1, ganglioglioma in 1, and gliosis in 2. The seizure outcome after surgery was satisfactory: Engel class IA in 12 patients, IIB in 3, IIIA in 1, IIIB in 1, and IVB in 1 at the 2-year follow-up.


In this study, the authors exploited the improved access to the cingulate epileptogenic network made possible by the use of 3D electrodes implanted using stereoelectroencephalography methodology. Under iEEG recording and intraoperative neuromonitoring, epilepsy surgery on lesions in the cingulate gyrus can result in good outcomes in terms of seizure recurrence and the incidence of postoperative permanent deficits.

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Sheng-Tzung Tsai, Hsin-Chi Tsai, Chung-Chih Kuo, Hsiang-Yi Hung, Chien-Hui Lee and Shin-Yuan Chen