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Tianyuan Zhang, Hongda Bao, Shibin Shu, Zhen Liu, Xu Sun, Bin Wang, Yong Qiu, and Zezhang Zhu

OBJECTIVE

Sacral agenesis (SA) is a rare congenital malformation of the spine. There has been a paucity of clinical research to investigate the surgical outcome of spinopelvic fixation in these patients. In this study, the authors aimed to evaluate the outcome of different distal fixation anchors in lumbosacral spinal deformities associated with SA and to determine the optimal distal fixation anchor.

METHODS

Patients with diagnoses of SA and lumbosacral scoliosis undergoing spinopelvic fixation with S1 screws, iliac screws, or S2-alar-iliac (S2AI) screws were analyzed. The main curve, coronal balance distance, and pelvic obliquity were compared at baseline, postoperatively, and during follow-up in three groups. The complications were also recorded.

RESULTS

A total of 24 patients were included: 8 patients were stratified into group 1 (S1 screws), 9 into group 2 (iliac screws), and 7 into group 3 (S2AI screws). The main curves were well corrected postoperatively (p < 0.05) in all groups. Coronal balance showed a tendency of deterioration during follow-up in patients with S1 screws (from 18.8 mm to 27.0 mm). Regarding pelvic obliquity, patients with both iliac and S2AI screws showed significant correction (from 3.7° to 2.3° and from 3.3° to 1.6°). Implant-related complications were rod breakage in 3 patients and infection in 1 patient in group 2, and no implant-related complications were observed in group 3. There were 3 cases of unilateral S1 pedicle screw misplacement in group 1.

CONCLUSIONS

Spinopelvic fixation is a safe and effective procedure that can achieve coronal correction in lumbosacral scoliosis associated with SA. Compared with S1 and iliac screws, S2AI screws as distal fixation anchors can achieve a more satisfactory correction with fewer implant-related complications.

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Weiguo Zhu, Zhen Liu, Shifu Sha, Jing Guo, Hongda Bao, Leilei Xu, Yong Qiu, and Zezhang Zhu

OBJECTIVE

Previous studies have reported spinal straightening and pelvic retroversion when changing from erect to sitting posture in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), which were thought to be related to low-back pain after sitting for long periods. However, the sitting sagittal alignment after posterior spinal fusion has not been evaluated. This study aims to assess the influence of posterior fusion surgery upon sitting sagittal spinopelvic alignment in adolescents with idiopathic thoracic curves (thoracic AIS [T-AIS]).

METHODS

A total of 44 T-AIS patients (30 Lenke I and 14 Lenke II) from the authors’ center were included in this study. Preoperative and postoperative long-cassette lateral radiographs of the spine and pelvis were obtained with the patients in standing and sitting positions. Thoracic kyphosis (TK), lumbar lordosis (LL), pelvic incidence (PI), sacral slope (SS), and pelvic tilt (PT) were measured on standing and sitting lateral radiographs. Patients were divided into selective thoracic fusion (STF) and nonselective thoracic fusion (NSTF) groups.

RESULTS

At baseline, TK, LL, and SS decreased by 27.5%, 42.1%, and 31.1%, respectively, from the standing to the sitting position, while PT increased by 193.6%. After posterior spinal fusion, increased TK, LL, and SS and corresponding decreased PT were observed compared to baseline parameters in the sitting position. Comparison of postoperative sitting and standing values for the whole cohort showed that the mean LS and SS values were significantly lower in the sitting position (decreased by 14.0% and 13.9%, respectively, compared to standing), whereas the mean PT value was significantly greater (increased by 39.0%, compared to standing). Similar changes were also observed in the STF group: postoperatively the mean LL value was 15.6% lower in sitting than in standing, while the mean SS value was 11.5% lower. However, no obvious changes of the postoperative values in sitting were found in the NSTF group.

CONCLUSIONS

Nonselective thoracic fusion surgery in T-AIS patients diminished spinal straightening and pelvic retroversion during sitting. Reducing distal fusion levels was of special value in not only saving more lumbar mobility, but also preserving the function of pelvic posterior rotation.