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Philip C. Su, Ham-Min Tseng, Hon-Man Liu, Ruoh-Fang Yen and Horng-Huei Liou

Object. The aim of this study was to determine if subthalamotomy is effective in treating advanced Parkinson disease (PD).

Methods. The authors performed microelectrode mapping—guided stereotactic surgery on the subthalamic nucleus in eight patients with PD. Lesioning was performed using radiofrequency heat coagulation and confirmed with magnetic resonance imaging. Three patients who underwent unilateral and four with bilateral subthalamotomy were evaluated for up to 18 months according to the Unified PD Rating Scale (UPDRS). One patient who underwent unilateral subthalamotomy died 6 months postsurgery.

At 3 months into the “off” period after surgery, there were significant improvements in contralateral bradykinesia (p < 0.0002), rigidity (p < 0.0001), tremor (p < 0.01), axial motor features (p < 0.02), gait (p < 0.03), postural stability (p < 0.03), total UPDRS scores (p < 0.03), and Schwab and England scores (p < 0.04). The benefits were sustained at 6, 12, and 18 months, except for the improvement in tremor. At 12 months into the “on” period, significant benefits were present for motor fluctuation (p < 0.04), on dyskinesia (p < 0.006), off duration (p < 0.05), total UPDRS score (p < 0.02), and contralateral tremor (p < 0.05). Benefits for motor fluctuation, off duration, and off-period tremor were lost after the 18-month follow-up period. The levodopa requirement was reduced by 66% for the unilateral and 38% for the bilaterally treated group. Bilateral subthalamotomy offered more benefits than did unilateral surgery for various parkinsonian features in both the on and off periods. Three patients suffered hemiballismus, two recovered spontaneously, and one died of aspiration pneumonia after discontinuation of levodopa.

Conclusions. These findings indicate that subthalamotomy can ameliorate the cardinal symptoms of PD, reduce the dosage of levodopa, diminish complications of the drug therapy, and improve the quality of life.

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Shin-Joe Yeh, Sung-Chun Tang, Li-Kai Tsai, Chung-Wei Lee, Ya-Fang Chen, Hon-Man Liu, Shih-Hung Yang, Yu-Lin Hsieh, Meng-Fai Kuo and Jiann-Shing Jeng


Pediatric and adult patients with moyamoya disease experience similar clinical benefits from indirect revascularization surgeries, but there are still debates about age-related angiographic differences of the collaterals established after surgery. The goal of this study was to assess age-related differences on ultrasonography before and after indirect revascularization surgeries in moyamoya patients, focusing on some ultrasonographic parameters known to be correlated with the collaterals supplied by the external carotid artery (ECA).


The authors prospectively included moyamoya patients (50 and 26 hemispheres in pediatric and adult patients, respectively) who would undergo indirect revascularization surgery. Before surgery and at 1, 3, and 6 months after surgery, the patients underwent ultrasonographic examinations. The ultrasonographic parameters included peak-systolic velocity (PSV), end-diastolic velocity (EDV), resistance index (RI), and flow volume (FV) measured in the ECA, superficial temporal artery (STA), and internal carotid artery on the operated side. The mean values, absolute changes, and percentage changes of these parameters were compared between the pediatric and adult patients. Logistic regression analysis was used to clarify the determinants affecting postoperative EDV changes in the STA.


Before surgery, the adult patients had mean higher EDV and lower RI in the STA and ECA than the pediatric group (all p < 0.05). After surgery, the pediatric patients had greater changes (absolute and percentage changes) in the PSV, EDV, RI, and FV in the STA and ECA (all p < 0.05). The factors affecting postoperative EDV changes in the STA at 6 months were age (p = 0.006) and size of the revascularization area (i.e., revascularization in more than the temporal region vs within the temporal region; p = 0.009). Pediatric patients who received revascularization procedures in more than the temporal region had higher velocities (PSV and EDV) in the STA than those who received revascularization within the temporal region (p < 0.05 at 1–6 months), but such differences were not observed in the adult group.


The greater changes of these parameters in the STA and ECA in pediatric patients than in adults after indirect revascularization surgeries indicated that pediatric patients might have a greater increase of collaterals postoperatively than adults. Pediatric patients who undergo revascularization in more than the temporal region might have more collaterals than those who undergo revascularization within the temporal region.