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Luke G. F. Smith, Nguyen Hoang, Ammar Shaikhouni and Stephanus Viljoen

Pedicle and lateral mass screws are the most common means of rigid fixation in posterior cervical spine fusions. Various other techniques such as translaminar screw placement, paravertebral foramen screw fixation, sublaminar and spinous process wiring, cement augmentation, and others have been developed for primary fixation or as salvage methods. Use of these techniques can be limited by a prior history of osteotomies, poor bone density, destruction of the bone-screw interface, and unfavorable vascular and osseous anatomy.

Here, the authors report on the novel application of cervical sublaminar polyester bands as an adjunct salvage method or additional fixation point used with traditional methods in the revision of prior constructs. While sublaminar polyester bands have been used for decades in pediatric scoliosis surgery in the thoracolumbar spine, they have yet to be utilized as a method of fixation in the cervical spine. In both cases described here, sublaminar banding proved crucial for fixation points where traditional fixation techniques would have been less than ideal. Further study is required to determine the full application of sublaminar polyester bands in the cervical spine as well as its outcomes.

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Nguyen Hoang, Diem Kieu Tran, Ryan Herde, Genevieve C. Couldwell, Anne G. Osborn and William T. Couldwell

OBJECT

Oculomotor cistern extension of pituitary adenomas is an overlooked feature within the literature. In this study, 7 cases of pituitary macroadenoma with oculomotor cistern extension and tracking are highlighted, and the implications of surgical and medical management are discussed.

METHODS

The records of patients diagnosed with pituitary macroadenomas who underwent resection and in whom preoperative pituitary protocol MRI scans were available for review were retrospectively reviewed. The patient and tumor characteristics were reviewed along with the operative outcomes and complications.

RESULTS

Seven patients (4.1%) with oculomotor cistern extension and tracking were identified in a cohort of 170 patients with pituitary macroadenoma. The most common presenting symptoms were visual deficit (6 patients; 86%), apoplexy (3 patients; 43%), and oculomotor nerve palsy (3 patients; 43%). Lone oculomotor nerve palsy was seen in 2 patients without apoplexy and 1 patient with an apoplectic event. Gross-total resection was achieved via a microscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach with or without endoscopic aid to the sella in 14%, near-total resection in 29%, and subtotal resection in 57% of patients in the data set.

CONCLUSIONS

Pituitary adenoma extension along the oculomotor cistern is uncommon; however, preoperatively recognizing such extension should play an important role in the surgeon’s operative considerations and postoperative clinical management because this extension can limit gross-total resection using the transsphenoidal approach alone.

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Jonathan Pindrik, Nguyen Hoang, Luke Smith, Mark Halverson, Mary Wojnaroski, Kelly McNally, Satyanarayana Gedela and Adam P. Ostendorf

OBJECTIVE

Despite perioperative risks, epilepsy surgery represents a legitimate curative or palliative treatment approach for children with drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE). Several factors characterizing infants and toddlers with DRE create unique challenges regarding optimal evaluation and management. Epilepsy surgery within children < 3 years of age has received moderate attention in the literature, including mainly case series and retrospective studies. This article presents a systematic literature review and explores multidisciplinary considerations for the preoperative evaluation and surgical management of infants and toddlers with DRE.

METHODS

The study team conducted a systematic literature review based on Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, targeting studies that investigated children < 3 years of age undergoing surgical treatment of DRE. Using the PubMed database, investigators selected peer-reviewed articles that reported seizure outcomes with or without developmental outcomes and/or perioperative complications. Studies were eliminated based on the following exclusion criteria: sample size < 5 patients; and inclusion of patients > 3 years of age, when demographic and outcomes data could not be separated from the cohort of patients < 3 years of age.

RESULTS

The study team identified 20 studies published between January 1990 and May 2017 that satisfied eligibility criteria. All selected studies represented retrospective reviews, observational studies, and uncontrolled case series. The compiled group of studies incorporated 465 patients who underwent resective or disconnective surgery (18 studies, 444 patients) or vagus nerve stimulator insertion (2 studies, 21 patients). Patient age at surgery ranged between 28 days and 36 months, with a mean of 16.8 months (1.4 years).

DISCUSSION

The study team provided a detailed summary of the literature review, focusing on the etiologies, preoperative evaluation, surgical treatments, seizure and developmental outcomes, and potential for functional recovery of infants and toddlers with DRE. Additionally, the authors discussed special considerations in this vulnerable age group from the perspective of multiple disciplines.

CONCLUSIONS

While presenting notable challenges, pediatric epilepsy surgery within infants and toddlers (children < 3 years of age) offers significant opportunities for improved seizure frequency, neuro-cognitive development, and quality of life. Successful evaluation and treatment of young children with DRE requires special consideration of multiple aspects related to neurological and physiological immaturity and surgical morbidity.

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Ryan F. Herde, Nguyen Hoang, Diem Kieu Tran, Genevieve Couldwell, William T. Couldwell and Anne G. Osborn

OBJECT

Peritumoral cysts are benign nonneoplastic cysts that are found adjacent to extraaxial brain tumors such as meningiomas, schwannomas, craniopharyngiomas, and esthesioneuroblastomas. Peritumoral cysts associated with pituitary macroadenomas have not been previously described in the literature. The authors report 6 cases of giant macroadenoma-associated peritumoral cysts and delineate their imaging spectrum.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively reviewed the records of 179 patients diagnosed with pituitary macroadenomas who underwent tumor resection at their institution and had preoperative MRI scans available for review. The patients were evaluated for the presence of associated peritumoral cysts. Clinical presentation, histopathology, follow-up time, tumor and peritumoral cyst dimensions were recorded. Signal intensity on T1-weighted, T2-weighted, diffusion-weighted, and FLAIR sequences, as well as pre- and postcontrast appearance, were determined.

RESULTS

Six patients (3.4%) with associated peritumoral cysts were identified in our cohort of 179 patients with pituitary macroadenoma. Twelve patients in the cohort had giant macroadenomas (≥ 4.0 cm), and 50% of these tumors had associated peritumoral cysts with significant extrasellar extension of the macroadenoma. Only tumors with craniocaudal, transverse, and anteroposterior diameters of 3.6 × 3.4 × 4.2 cm to 7.0 × 7.4 × 6.8 cm (mean 5.3 × 5.1 × 5.6 cm), respectively, had associated peritumoral cysts. The growth pattern in all tumors was suprasellar, with predominant anterior and lateral extension.

Cysts showed T1-weighted, T2-weighted, and FLAIR hyperintensity in 67%, 67%, and 60% of patients, respectively. There was no contrast enhancement of the cyst wall or fluid contents in any patient. Postoperatively, cysts had completely resolved (4 of 5) or significantly decreased in size (1 of 5). One patient was lost to follow-up.

CONCLUSIONS

Macroadenoma-associated peritumoral cysts are rare, benign, and likely nonneoplastic fluid collections that do not represent neoplasm. These cysts display a predictable pattern of hyperintensity on T1-weighted, T2-weighted, and FLAIR sequences and do not enhance. They most likely represent proteinaceous CSF in a sulcus or cistern that becomes trapped (encysted) by anterolateral extension of unusually large macroadenomas. Peritumoral cysts may facilitate resection of the associated macroadenoma by providing a cleavage plane.

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Mary T. Austin, Emma Hamilton, Denna Zebda, Hoang Nguyen, Jan M. Eberth, Yuchia Chang, Linda S. Elting and David I. Sandberg

OBJECTIVE

Health disparities in access to care, early detection, and survival exist among adult patients with cancer. However, there have been few reports assessing how health disparities impact pediatric patients with malignancies. The objective in this study was to examine the impact of racial/ethnic and social factors on disease presentation and outcome for children with primary CNS solid tumors.

METHODS

The authors examined all children (age ≤ 18 years) in whom CNS solid tumors were diagnosed and who were enrolled in the Texas Cancer Registry between 1995 and 2009 (n = 2421). Geocoded information was used to calculate the driving distance between a patient's home and the nearest pediatric cancer treatment center. Socioeconomic status (SES) was determined using the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality formula and 2007–2011 US Census block group data. Logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with advanced-stage disease. Survival probability and hazard ratios were calculated using life table methods and Cox regression.

RESULTS

Children with advanced-stage CNS solid tumors were more likely to be < 1 year old, Hispanic, and in the lowest SES quartile (all p < 0.05). The adjusted odds ratios of presenting with advanced-stage disease were higher in children < 1 year old compared with children > 10 years old (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.06–2.75), and in Hispanic patients compared with non-Hispanic white patients (OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.19–2.04). Distance to treatment and SES did not impact disease stage at presentation in the adjusted analysis. Furthermore, 1- and 5-year survival probability were worst in children 1–10 years old, Hispanic patients, non-Hispanic black patients, and those in the lowest SES quartile (p < 0.05). In the adjusted survival model, only advanced disease and malignant behavior were predictive of mortality.

CONCLUSIONS

Racial/ethnic disparities are associated with advanced-stage disease presentation for children with CNS solid tumors. Disease stage at presentation and tumor behavior are the most important predictors of survival.

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Oral Presentations

2010 AANS Annual Meeting Philadelphia, Pennsylvania May 1–5, 2010