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Jaime A. Quirarte, Vinodh A. Kumar, Ho-Ling Liu, Kyle R. Noll, Jeffrey S. Wefel and Frederick F. Lang

Supplementary motor area (SMA) syndrome is well known; however, the mechanism underlying recovery from language SMA syndrome is unclear. Herein the authors report the case of a right-handed woman with speech aphasia following resection of an oligodendroglioma located in the anterior aspect of the left superior frontal gyrus. The patient exhibited language SMA syndrome, and functional MRI (fMRI) findings 12 days postoperatively demonstrated a complete shift of blood oxygen level–dependent (BOLD) activation to the contralateral right language SMA/pre-SMA as well as coequal activation and an increased volume of activation in the left Broca’s area and the right Broca’s homolog. The authors provide, to the best of their knowledge, the first description of dynamic changes in task-based hemispheric language BOLD fMRI activations across the preoperative, immediate postoperative, and more distant postoperative settings associated with the development and subsequent complete resolution of the clinical language SMA syndrome.

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Ling-Wei Wang, Cheng-Ying Shiau, Wen-Yuh Chung, Hsiu-Mei Wu, Wan-Yuo Guo, Kang-Du Liu, Donald Ming-tak Ho, Tai-Tong Wong and David Hung-Chi Pan


The authors report the long-term treatment results of Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) for patients with low-grade astrocytomas who underwent surgery at a single institution.


A series of 21 patients (median age 20 years) with 25 intracranial low-grade astrocytomas (World Health Organization Grades I and II) were treated with GKS between 1993 and 2003. Among them, four underwent GKS as a primary treatment. Two underwent GKS as a treatment boost after radiotherapy. In the other 15 patients, GKS was performed as an adjuvant or salvage treatment for residual/recurrent tumors after the patients had undergone craniotomy. Tumor volumes ranged from 0.2 to 13.3 ml (median 2.4 ml). Prescription margin doses ranged from 8 to 18 Gy (median 14.5 Gy). Radiation volumes were 1.3 to 21.6 ml (median 3.6 ml). Patients underwent regular follow up, with neurological evaluation and magnetic resonance imaging studies obtained at 6-month intervals.

One patient was lost to follow-up. The clinical follow-up time was 5 to 144 months (median 67 months). Complete tumor remission was seen in three patients. The 10-year progression-free patient survival rate after GKS was 65%. Tumor progression was found in six patients of whom five received further salvage treatment. All the tumor progression occurred within the GKS-treated volumes. Mild-to-moderate adverse radiation effects (AREs) were found in eight patients. Both of the patients who had undergone GKS as a treatment boost after radiotherapy developed AREs, but with good shrinkage of tumors.


Gamma Knife surgery provides durable long-term local tumor control with acceptable toxicity for some patients with highly selected low-grade astrocytomas.

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Wen-Yuh Chung, Kang-Du Liu, Cheng-Ying Shiau, Hsiu-Mei Wu, Ling-Wei Wang, Wan-Yuo Guo, Donald Ming-Tak Ho and David Hung-Chi Pan

Object. The authors conducted a study to determine the optimal radiation dose for vestibular schwannoma (VS) and to examine the histopathology in cases of treatment failure for better understanding of the effects of irradiation.

Methods. A retrospective study was performed of 195 patients with VS; there were 113 female and 82 male patients whose mean age was 51 years (range 11–82 years). Seventy-two patients (37%) had undergone partial or total excision of their tumor prior to gamma knife surgery (GKS). The mean tumor volume was 4.1 cm3 (range 0.04–23.1 cm3). Multiisocenter dose planning placed a prescription dose of 11 to 18.2 Gy on the 50 to 94% isodose located at the tumor margin. Clinical and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging follow-up evaluations were performed every 6 months.

A loss of central enhancement was demonstrated on MR imaging in 69.5% of the patients. At the latest MR imaging assessment decreased or stable tumor volume was demonstrated in 93.6% of the patients. During a median follow-up period of 31 months resection was avoided in 96.8% of cases. Uncontrolled tumor swelling was noted in five patients at 3.5, 17, 24, 33, and 62 months after GKS, respectively. Twelve of 20 patients retained serviceable hearing. Two patients experienced a temporary facial palsy. Two patients developed a new trigeminal neuralgia. There was no treatment-related death. Histopathological examination of specimens in three cases (one at 62 months after GKS) revealed a long-lasting radiation effect on vessels inside the tumor.

Conclusions. Radiosurgery had a long-term radiation effect on VSs for up to 5 years. A margin 12-Gy dose with homogeneous distribution is effective in preventing tumor progression, while posing no serious threat to normal cranial nerve function.