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Keun-Ho Lee, Ki-Tack Kim, Yong-Chan Kim, Joong-Won Lee, and Kee-Yong Ha

OBJECTIVE

The purpose of this study was to investigate the rate of and the risk factors for surgery-related complications demonstrated on radiography after pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO) for thoracolumbar kyphosis in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS).

METHODS

The authors retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 230 consecutive patients with thoracolumbar kyphosis due to AS who had undergone 1-level PSO at a single institution in the period from 2010 to 2017. The causes of surgery-related complications were divided into two types: surgical/technical failure and mechanical failure.

RESULTS

The patients consisted of 20 women and 210 men, with an average age of 43.4 years. The average follow-up period was 39.0 months. The preoperative sagittal vertical axis was 18.5 ± 69.3 cm, which improved to 4.9 ± 4.6 cm after PSO. Of the 77 patients (33.5%) who experienced minor or major surgery-related complications, 56 had complications related to surgical/technical failure (overall incidence 24.3%) and 21 had complications related to mechanical failure (overall incidence 9.1%). Fourteen patients (6.1%) underwent reoperation. However, among the 77 patients with complications, the rate of revision surgery was 18.2%. The most common radiological complications were as follows: sagittal translation in 24 patients, coronal imbalance in 20, under-correction in 8, delayed union in 8, and distal junctional failure and kyphosis in 8. The most common causes of reoperation were coronal imbalance in 4 patients, symptomatic malposition of pedicle screws in 3, and distal junctional failure in 3. Delayed union was statistically correlated with posterior sagittal translation (p = 0.007).

CONCLUSIONS

PSO can provide acceptable radiographic outcomes for the correction of thoracolumbar kyphosis in patients with AS. However, a high incidence of surgery-related complications related to mechanical failure and surgical technique can develop. Thorough radiographic investigation before and during surgery is needed to determine whether complete ossification occurs along the anterior and posterior longitudinal ligaments of the spine.

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Ho Jun Seol, Kyu-Chang Wang, Seung-Ki Kim, Yong-Seung Hwang, Ki Joong Kim, and Byung-Kyu Cho

Object

Patients with moyamoya disease complain of headache before surgery, after surgery, or in both periods. To clarify the pathophysiological features of these headaches which are one of the major symptoms in moyamoya disease after indirect bypass surgery, the authors reviewed data obtained in patients with moyamoya disease who underwent such surgery at their institute.

Methods

The authors surveyed 204 children with moyamoya disease younger than 17 years of age who underwent indirect bypass surgery consecutively between 1988 and 2000. If headache and associated symptoms disturbed their daily activity, required rest and/or medication, and occurred at least once a month, the headache was regarded as significant and the patient was included in the study. A postoperative headache was defined as the presence of significant headache 12 months after the operation or later. Preoperative headache was documented in 44 patients. Postoperative headache was observed in 63% (28 of 44) of the patients with preoperative headache and in 6.3% (10 of 160) of those without preoperative headache. Aggravation on postoperative magnetic resonance images or single-photon emission computerized tomography scans did not correlate with this symptom (p = 0.729 and 0.203, respectively). The clinical course had the following features: 1) a coexisting stage of headache and transient ischemic attack; 2) a second stage of headache only; and 3) a final stage of improvement or disappearance of headache.

Conclusions

The authors demonstrated that headaches can persist or develop after indirect bypass surgery despite successful prevention of cerebral ischemia. In addition to decreased cerebral blood flow, progressive recruitment and redistribution of blood flow should be considered as a cause of headaches in patients with moyamoya disease.

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Bo-Gun Suh, Mary Ruth A. Padua, K. Daniel Riew, Ho-Joong Kim, Bong-Soon Chang, Choon-Ki Lee, and Jin S. Yeom

Object

The authors introduce a simple technique and tool to facilitate reduction of atlantoaxial subluxation during posterior segmental screw fixation.

Methods

Two types of reduction tool have been designed: T-type and L-type. A T-shaped levering tool was used when a pedicle or pars screw was used for C-2, and an L-shaped tool was used when a laminar screw was used for C-2. Twenty-two patients who underwent atlantoaxial segmental screw fixation and fusion for the treatment of anteroposterior instability or subluxation, using either of these new types of reduction tool, were enrolled. Demographic, clinical, and surgical data, which had been prospectively collected in a database, were analyzed. The atlantodens interval was measured on lateral radiographs, and the space available for the spinal cord was measured on CT scans.

Results

The authors could attain reduction of the atlantoaxial subluxation without difficulty using either type of tool. The preoperative atlantodens interval ranged from −16.9 to 10.9 mm in a neutral position, and the postoperative interval ranged from −2.8 to 3.0 mm, with negative values due to extension-type or mixed-type instability. The mean space available for the spinal cord significantly increased, from 9.5 mm preoperatively to 15.4 mm postoperatively (p < 0.001).

Conclusions

This technique allowed for controlled manipulation and reduction of the atlantoaxial subluxation without difficulty.

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Dae-Woong Ham, Ho-Joong Kim, Sang-Min Park, Se Jin Park, Jiwon Park, and Jin S. Yeom

OBJECTIVE

Changes in the thoracolumbar angle (TLA) would play a pivotal role in the reciprocal changes following spine realignment surgery, thereby leading to the development of proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK). This study aimed to investigate the association between TLA and the development of PJK following adult spinal deformity surgery.

METHODS

A total of 107 patients were divided into PJK+ and PJK− groups according to the development of PJK within 12 months after surgery. The TLA and spinopelvic radiological parameters were compared between the PJK+ and PJK− groups. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to identify the risk factors for PJK. The receiver operating characteristic curves of the regression models were used to investigate the cutoff values of significant parameters needed so that PJK would not occur.

RESULTS

The change in TLA (ΔTLA) in the PJK+ group was significantly larger than in the PJK− group (6.7° ± 7.9° and 2.2° ± 8.1°, respectively; p = 0.006). Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that age, postoperative pelvic incidence–lumbar lordosis, and ΔTLA were significant risk factors for PJK. The risk of developing PJK was higher when the postoperative pelvic incidence–lumbar lordosis was < 5.2 and the ΔTLA was > 3.58°.

CONCLUSIONS

The present study highlights the thinking that extensive correction of TLA and lumbar lordosis should be avoided in patients with adult spinal deformity. Overcorrection of TLA of > 3.58° could result in higher odds of PJK.

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Kyeong Hwan Kim, Dong Bong Lee, Ho-Joong Kim, K. Daniel Riew, Boo Seop Kim, Bong-Soon Chang, Choon-Ki Lee, and Jin S. Yeom

Combined anterior and posterior surgery is frequently chosen for the treatment of prior, severe C1–2 dislocations that occurred during early childhood because of the difficulty in achieving reduction and satisfactory decompression. The authors treated a prior, severe C1–2 dislocation that was causing progressive quadriparesis. The patient was a 14-year-old boy who had suffered a C1–2 fracture-dislocation at 3 years of age and had been treated with a Minerva body jacket cast. The treatment involved posterior C1–2 segmental screw fixation, without direct bone decompression or additional surgery. Satisfactory neural decompression was achieved with the techniques used, and complete bone union was confirmed. The patient showed satisfactory neurological recovery at the 5-year follow-up assessment.

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Peng-Yuan Chang, Jau-Ching Wu, Wen-Cheng Huang, Tsung-Hsi Tu, and Henrich Cheng

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Eun Mi Lee, Joong Koo Kang, Sang Joon Kim, Seok Ho Hong, Tae Sung Ko, Sang Ahm Lee, Do Heui Lee, and Jung Kyo Lee

OBJECT

Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) has proven efficacy in the treatment of drug-resistant mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS) and is comparable to conventional resective surgery. It may be effective as an alternative treatment to reoperation after failed temporal lobe surgery in patients with MTLE-HS. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of GKRS in patients with unilateral MTLE-HS who did not achieve seizure control or had recurrent seizures after anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL).

METHODS

Twelve patients (8 males; mean age 35.50 ± 9.90 years) with MTLE-HS who underwent GKRS after failed ATL (Engel Classes III–IV) were included. GKRS targets included the remnant tissue or adjacent regions of the previously performed ATL with a marginal dose of 24–25 Gy at the 50% isodose line in all patients. Final seizure outcome was assessed using Engel’s modified criteria during the final 2 years preceding data analysis. A comparison between signal changes on follow-up MRI and clinical outcome was performed.

RESULTS

All patients were followed up for at least 4 years with a mean duration of 6.18 ± 1.77 years (range 4–8.8 years) after GKRS. At the final assessment, 6 of 12 patients were classified as seizure free (Engel Class Ia, n = 3; Ic, n = 2; and Id, n = 1) and 6 patients were classified as not seizure free (Engel Class II, n = 1; III, n = 2; and IV, n = 3). Neither initial nor late MRI signal changes after GKRS statistically correlated with surgical outcome. Clinical seizure outcome did not differ significantly with initial or late MRI changes after GKRS.

CONCLUSIONS

GKRS can be considered an alternative option when the patients with MTLE-HS who had recurrent or residual seizures after ATL refuse a second operation.

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Chang Sub Lee, Seok Ho Hong, Kyu-Chang Wang, Seung-Ki Kim, Joong Shin Park, Jong-Kwan Jun, Bo Hyun Yoon, Young-Ho Lee, Son Moon Shin, Yeon Kyung Lee, and Byung-Kyu Cho

Object

The prognosis of fetal ventriculomegaly (FVM) varies because of the disease’s heterogeneity and the diversity of accompanying anomalies. Moreover, the cases that are referred to neurosurgeons may have different clinical features from those typically encountered by obstetricians. The object of this study was to delineate the prognosis of FVM in cases for which neurosurgical consultation was sought.

Methods

Forty-four cases of FVM that were diagnosed before birth and referred to neurosurgeons for prenatal consultation were analyzed retrospectively. Twenty-five of the 44 patients had accompanying anomalies, but in only three (12%) of the cases were they detected prenatally. Postnatal imaging studies revealed that agenesis of the corpus callosum (nine cases) was the most common associated anomaly. Neuronal migration disorders, periventricular leukomalacia, and arachnoid cysts were present in four cases each, and aqueductal stenosis was present in three cases.

Thirty-three patients were followed up longer than 11 months; in 15 (45%) delayed cognitive and/or motor development was documented, and all had accompanying anomalies. All 10 of the patients with isolated FVM exhibited normal development during the follow-up period. Eleven (25%) of the 44 patients underwent neurosurgical interventions for ventriculomegaly, which included ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement in seven cases. Four patients (9%) died.

Conclusions

The authors conclude that delayed development and disturbed functional status in patients in whom FVM was diagnosed prenatally are closely related to the presence of certain accompanying anomalies. On postnatal examination, more than half of the patients in whom the diagnosis of FVM was based on ultrasonography findings and whose parents were offered prenatal neurosurgical consultation were found to have additional anomalies that were not detected prenatally. Because of the possibility of additional undiagnosed anomalies, consulting neurosurgeons should be cautious in giving a prognosis in cases of FVM, even when prenatal ultrasonography reveals isolated ventriculomegaly and tests for intrauterine infection and chromosomal abnormality yield negative results.