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Kazuhiko Nishino, Hitoshi Hasegawa, Kenichi Morita, Masafumi Fukuda, Yasushi Ito, Yukihiko Fujii and Mitsuya Sato


Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) in the cerebellopontine angle cistern (CPAC) are specific lesions that can cause neurovascular compression syndromes as well as intracranial hemorrhage. Although case reports describing the CPAC AVMs, especially those presenting with trigeminal neuralgia (TN), have been accumulating by degrees, the pathophysiology of CPAC AVMs remains obscure. The authors' purpose in the present study was to evaluate the clinical and radiographic features of CPAC AVMs as well as the treatment options.


This study defined a CPAC AVM as a small AVM predominantly located in the CPAC with minimal extension into the pial surface of the brainstem and closely associated with cranial nerves. All patients with CPAC AVMs treated in the authors' affiliated hospitals over a 16-year period were retrospectively identified. Clinical charts, imaging studies, and treatment options were evaluated.


Ten patients (6 men and 4 women), ranging in age from 56 to 77 years (mean 65.6 years), were diagnosed with CPAC AVMs according to the authors' definition. Six patients presented with hemorrhage, 3 with TN, and the remaining patient developed a hemorrhage subsequent to TN. Seven AVMs were associated with the trigeminal nerve (Group V), and 3 with the facial-vestibulocochlear nerve complex (Group VII–VIII). All patients in Group VII–VIII presented with the hemorrhage instead of hemifacial spasm. Regarding angioarchitecture, the intrinsic pontine arteries provided the blood supply for all CPAC AVMs in Group V. In addition, 5 of 7 AVMs with hemorrhagic episodes accompanied flow-related aneurysms, although no aneurysm was detected in patients with TN alone. With respect to treatment, all patients with hemorrhagic presentation underwent Gamma Knife surgery (GKS), resulting in favorable outcomes except for 1 patient who experienced rebleeding after GKS, which was caused by the repeated rupture of a feeder aneurysm. The AVMs causing TN were managed with surgery, GKS, or a combination, according to the nidus-nerve relationship. All patients eventually obtained pain relief.


Clinical symptoms caused by CPAC AVMs occur at an older age compared with AVMs in other locations; CPAC AVMs also have distinctive angioarchitectures according to their location in the CPAC. Although GKS is likely to be an effective treatment option for the CPAC AVMs with hemorrhagic presentations, it seems ideal to obliterate the flow-related aneurysms before performing GKS, although this is frequently challenging. For CPAC AVMs with TN, it is important to evaluate the nidus-nerve relationship before treatment, and GKS is especially useful for patients who do not require urgent pain relief.

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Kazuhiko Nishino, Yasushi Ito, Hitoshi Hasegawa, Bumpei Kikuchi, Junsuke Shimbo, Keiko Kitazawa and Yukihiko Fujii


Transvenous embolization (TVE) for the treatment of a cavernous sinus (CS) dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) occasionally causes cranial nerve palsy (CNP). Overpacking of coils is considered to result in CNP. The purpose of this study was to analyze the association of TVE-induced CNP with the volume and location of coils activated in the CS.


Thirty-one patients with CS DAVFs (33 lesions) underwent TVE.


Cranial nerve palsy occurred or was aggravated in 13 cases (39.4%; CNP group). The cumulative volume of activated coils was significantly greater in the CNP group (0.241 ± 0.172 cm3) than in the non-CNP group (0.119 ± 0.075 cm3; p < 0.05). Of those lesions with > 0.2 cm3 of coil volume, 77.8% showed immediate aggravation or a new occurrence of CNP after TVE. Five lesions treated with a smaller volume of coils showed a delayed worsening or occurrence of CNP. In cases with induced oculomotor nerve palsy, coils had been densely packed in the superolateral part of the anterior CS. Dense packing in the lateral portion of the posterior CS frequently induced abducent nerve palsy. Although patients harboring lesions with a greater coil volume required a longer recovery time, newly developed or aggravated CNP, related to 84.6% of the lesions, resolved completely.


The cumulative volume and specific locations of coils in the CS correlated with TVE-induced CNP. Overpacking appeared to be the predominant cause of CNP; however, for CNP in cases involving smaller coil volumes, an alternative mechanism may be involved.

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Hiroatsu Murakami, Tadashi Kawaguchi, Masafumi Fukuda, Yasushi Ito, Hitoshi Hasegawa and Ryuichi Tanaka

✓ The lateral spread response (LSR) is used in the electrophysiological diagnosis of a hemifacial spasm or for monitoring during microvascular decompression. The authors used LSRs for intraoperative monitoring during endovascular surgery in a rare case of vertebral artery (VA) aneurysm that caused intractable hemifacial spasm.

A 49-year-old woman presented with a right hemifacial spasm that had persisted for 9 months. No other clinical symptom was observed. Vertebral artery angiography revealed a saccular aneurysm of the right VA. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging demonstrated that the aneurysm was compressing the root exit zone of the right facial nerve. Endovascular treatment of the VA aneurysm was performed while monitoring the patient's LSRs. During occlusion of the VA at sites distal and proximal to the aneurysm, the LSRs temporarily disappeared and then reappeared with a higher amplitude than those measured preceding their disappearance. The hemifacial spasm alleviated gradually and disappeared completely 6 months after treatment. The LSRs changed in parallel with the improvement in the patient's hemifacial spasms and eventually disappeared. No recurrence of symptoms has been noticed as of 18 months postoperatively.

This is the first report of the use of LSR monitoring during endovascular surgery for an intracranial aneurysm that causes hemifacial spasm. Intraoperative and postoperative changes in the LSRs provided useful information regarding the pathophysiology of hemifacial spasm.

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Junichi Yoshimura, Yoshihiro Tsukamoto, Masakazu Sano, Hitoshi Hasegawa, Kazuhiko Nishino, Akihiko Saito, Masafumi Fukuda, Kouichirou Okamoto and Yukihiko Fujii

The authors report a rare case of a huge hypervascular tentorial cavernous angioma treated with preoperative endovascular embolization, followed by successful gross-total removal. A 15-year-old girl presented with scintillation, diplopia, and papilledema. Computed tomography and MRI studies revealed a huge irregularly shaped tumor located in the right occipital and suboccipital regions. The tumor, which had both intra- and extradural components, showed marked enhancement and invasion of the overlying occipital bone. Angiography revealed marked tumor stain, with blood supply mainly from a large branch of the left posterior meningeal artery. Therefore, this lesion was diagnosed as a tentorium-based extraaxial tumor. For differential diagnosis, meningioma, hemangiopericytoma, and malignant skull tumor were considered. Tumor feeders were endovascularly embolized with particles of polyvinyl alcohol. On the following day, the tumor was safely gross totally removed with minimum blood loss. Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of cavernous angioma. To date, there have been no reports of tentorium-based cavernous angiomas endovascularly embolized preoperatively. A tentorial cavernous angioma is most likely to show massive intraoperative bleeding. Therefore, preoperative embolization appears to be quite useful for safe maximum resection. Hence, the authors assert that the differential diagnosis of tentorium-based tumors should include tentorial cavernous angioma, for which preoperative endovascular embolization should be considered.

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Ryuya Yamanaka, Naoto Tsuchiya, Naoki Yajima, Junpei Honma, Hitoshi Hasegawa, Ryuichi Tanaka, Jay Ramsey, R. Michael Blaese and Kleanthis G. Xanthopoulos

Object. The aim of this study was to investigate further immunogene treatment of malignant brain tumor to improve its therapeutic efficacy.

Methods. Intratumoral dendritic cells pulsed with Semliki Forest virus (SFV)—interleukin-18 (IL-18) and/or systemic IL-12 were injected into mice bearing the B16 brain tumor. To study the immune mechanisms involved in tumor regression, we monitored the growth of implanted B16 brain tumor cells in T cell—depleted mice and IFNγ-neutralized mice. To analyze the protective immunity created by tumor inoculation, B16 cells were injected into the left thighs of mice that had received an inoculation, and tumor growth was monitored.

The local delivery of dendritic cells pulsed with IL-18 bound by SFV combined with the systemic administration of IL-12 enhanced the induction of the T helper type 1 response from tumor-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and natural killer cells as well as antitumor immunity. Interferon-γ is partly responsible for this IL-18—mediated antitumor immunity. Furthermore, the protective immunity is mediated mainly by CD8+ T cells.

Conclusions. Immunogene therapy that combines the local administration of dendritic cells pulsed with IL-18 bound by SFV and the systemic administration of IL-12 may be an excellent candidate for the development of a new treatment protocol. A self-replicating SFV system may therefore open a novel approach for the treatment of malignant brain tumor.

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Masaomi Koyanagi, Akira Ishii, Hirotoshi Imamura, Tetsu Satow, Kazumichi Yoshida, Hitoshi Hasegawa, Takayuki Kikuchi, Yohei Takenobu, Mitsushige Ando, Jun C. Takahashi, Ichiro Nakahara, Nobuyuki Sakai and Susumu Miyamoto


Long-term follow-up results of the treatment of unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs) by means of coil embolization remain unclear. The aim of this study was to analyze the frequency of rupture, retreatment, stroke, and death in patients with coiled UIAs who were followed for up to 20 years at multiple stroke centers.


The authors retrospectively analyzed data from cases in which patients underwent coil embolization between 1995 and 2004 at 4 stroke centers. In collecting the late (≥ 1 year) follow-up data, postal questionnaires were used to assess whether patients had experienced rupture or retreatment of a coiled aneurysm or any stroke or had died.


Overall, 184 patients with 188 UIAs were included. The median follow-up period was 12 years (interquartile range 11–13 years, maximum 20 years). A total of 152 UIAs (81%) were followed for more than 10 years. The incidence of rupture was 2 in 2122 aneurysm-years (annual rupture rate 0.09%). Nine of the 188 patients with coiled UIAs (4.8%) underwent additional treatment. In 5 of these 9 cases, the first retreatment was performed more than 5 years after the initial treatment. Large aneurysms were significantly more likely to require retreatment. Nine strokes occurred over the 2122 aneurysm-years. Seventeen patients died in this cohort.


This study demonstrates a low risk of rupture of coiled UIAs with long-term follow-up periods of up to 20 years. This suggests that coiling of UIAs could prevent rupture for a long period of time. However, large aneurysms might need to be followed for a longer time.