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Yukinari Kakizawa, Hisashi Nagashima, Fusakazu Oya, Kiyoshi Ito, Yuichiro Tanaka, Kazuhiro Hongo and Shigeaki Kobayashi

✓ Although in several histological studies of arteriovenous malformation (AVM) nidi the presence of compartments has been documented, no clinical study has been published. The present study was conducted to determine the presence of nidus compartments in clinical cases by using a new radiographic method.

Two patients with unruptured and one with a ruptured AVM (all Spetzler—Martin Grade III) were studied. A microcatheter was superselectively introduced into each of two or three feeding arteries of the AVMs under three-dimensional (3D) angiographic guidance to obtain 3D images of the nidus by using rotational digital subtraction angiography. On 3D images the different feeding arteries were found to be independent from one another, which allowed the authors to confirm the presence of compartments. On the other hand, separate feeding arteries often had a common draining vessel. Compartments in AVM nidi were demonstrated by a novel rotational 3D angiographic procedure by using superselective microcatheterization, which should be useful for designing treatment strategies for large and complex AVMs.

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Kazuaki Yamamoto, Hisashi Ito, Shigeru Fukutake, Takashi Odo, Tetsumasa Kamei, Toshio Yamaguchi and Takaomi Taira

Transcranial MR-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) therapy is a less invasive form of stereotactic treatment for tremors and other movement disorders. Its stereotactic accuracy is ensured by stability of the stereotactic frame and MR table. The authors report a case wherein the patient’s movement was detected, and the MR images were repeated to continue the treatment.

A 72-year-old man with essential tremor underwent unilateral ventralis intermedius thalamotomy using MRgFUS. The stereotactic frame was correctly fixed to the patient’s skull and the table. During the seventh sonication, the patient pressed the emergency button and vomited several times. Before the eighth sonication, the patient’s movement was detected and was verified on coronal images. The MR images were repeated, and the treatment was successfully completed with significant improvement in the tremors. After treatment, it was discovered that the MR table was laterally unstable due to the absence of ball bearings, which should be present on both sides of the guide rail of the MR table. The ball bearings were attached to the reverse side of the table, and the table was stabilized. Stereotactic accuracy of MRgFUS is not only ensured by rigid fixation of the stereotactic frame, but also by stability of the MR table.