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Jing Xiang, Yingying Wang, Yangmei Chen, Yang Liu, Rupesh Kotecha, Xiaolin Huo, Douglas F. Rose, Hisako Fujiwara, Nat Hemasilpin, Ki Lee, Francesco T. Mangano, Blaise Jones and Ton deGrauw

Object

Recent reports suggest that high-frequency epileptic activity is highly localized to epileptogenic zones. The goal of the present study was to investigate the potential usefulness of noninvasive localization of high-frequency epileptic activity for epilepsy surgery.

Methods

Data obtained in 4 patients, who had seizures during routine magnetoencephalography (MEG) tests, were retrospectively studied. The MEG data were digitized at 4000 Hz, and 3D MR images were obtained. The magnetic sources were volumetrically localized with wavelet-based beamformer. The MEG results were subsequently compared with clinical data.

Results

The 4 patients had 1–4 high-frequency neuromagnetic components (110–910 Hz) in ictal and interictal activities. The loci of high-frequency activities were concordant with intracranial recordings therein 3 patients, who underwent presurgical evaluation. The loci of high-frequency ictal activities were in line with semiology and neuroimaging in all 4 of the patients. High-frequency epileptic activity was highly localized to the epileptogenic zones.

Conclusions

High-frequency epileptic activity can be volumetrically localized with MEG. Source analysis of high-frequency neuromagnetic signals has the potential to determine epileptogenic zones noninvasively and preoperatively for epilepsy surgery.

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Ravindra Arya, Jeffrey R. Tenney, Paul S. Horn, Hansel M. Greiner, Katherine D. Holland, James L. Leach, Michael J. Gelfand, Leonid Rozhkov, Hisako Fujiwara, Douglas F. Rose, David N. Franz and Francesco T. Mangano

OBJECT

Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) with medically refractory epilepsy is characterized by multifocal brain abnormalities, traditionally indicating poor surgical candidacy. This single-center, retrospective study appraised seizurerelated, neuropsychological, and other outcomes of resective surgery in TSC patients with medically refractory epilepsy, and analyzed predictors for these outcomes.

METHODS

Patients with multilesional TSC who underwent epilepsy surgery between 2007 and 2012 were identified from an electronic database. All patients underwent multimodality noninvasive and subsequent invasive evaluation. Seizure outcomes were classified using the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) scale. The primary outcome measure was complete seizure remission (ILAE Class 1). Secondary outcome measures included 50% responder rate, change in full-scale IQ, electroencephalography improvement, and reduction in antiepileptic drug (AED) burden.

RESULTS

A total of 37 patients with TSC underwent resective surgery during the study period. After a mean follow-up of 5.68 ± 3.67 years, 56.8% achieved complete seizure freedom (ILAE Class 1) and 86.5% had ILAE Class 4 outcomes or better. The full-scale IQ on follow-up was significantly higher in patients with ILAE Class 1 outcome (66.70 ± 12.36) compared with those with ILAE Class 2 or worse outcomes (56.00 ± 1.41, p = 0.025). In 62.5% of the patients with ILAE Class 2 or worse outcomes, the number of AEDs were found to be significantly reduced (p = 0.004).

CONCLUSIONS

This study substantiates the evidence for efficacy of resective epilepsy surgery in patients with bilateral multilesional TSC. More than half of the patients were completely seizure free. Additionally, a high proportion achieved clinically meaningful reduction in seizure burden and the number of AEDs.