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Yu Fujiki, Fumihiro Matano, Takayuki Mizunari, Yasuo Murai, Kojiro Tateyama, Kenta Koketsu, Asami Kubota, Shiro Kobayashi, Hiroyuki Yokota, and Akio Morita

OBJECTIVE

Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) can result in poor outcomes, and biomarkers for predicting poor prognosis have not yet been established. The aim of this study was to clarify the significance of the serum glucose/potassium ratio for predicting the prognosis of aneurysmal SAH.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively reviewed the records of 565 patients with aneurysmal SAH between 2006 and 2016. The patient group comprised 208 men and 357 women (mean age 61.5 years, range 10–95 years). A statistical analysis was conducted of the clinical and laboratory risk factors of poor outcome, including the serum glucose/potassium ratio.

RESULTS

On estimation of the initial assessment using Hunt and Kosnik (H-K) grading, 233 patients (41.2%) were classified as the severe SAH group (H-K Grade IV or V). There were significant correlations between the severe SAH group and serum glucose/potassium ratio (p < 0.0001). Serum glucose/potassium ratio was elevated in an H-K grade–dependent manner (Spearman’s r = 0.5374, p < 0.0001). With the estimation of the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) score at discharge, 355 patients (62.8%) were classified as poor outcome (GOS score 1–3). The serum glucose/potassium ratio was elevated in a GOS score at discharge–dependent manner (Spearman’s r = 0.4006, p < 0.0001), and was significantly elevated in the poor outcome group compared with the good outcome group (GOS score 4 or 5; p = 0.0245). There were significant correlations between poor outcome and serum glucose/potassium ratio (p < 0.0001), age (p < 0.0001), brain natriuretic peptide levels (p = 0.011), cerebral infarction due to vasospasm (p < 0.0001), and H-K grade (p < 0.0001). Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed significant correlations between poor outcome and serum glucose/potassium ratio (p = 0.009).

CONCLUSIONS

In this study, the serum glucose/potassium ratio of patients with aneurysmal SAH at admission was significantly correlated with H-K grade and GOS score at discharge. Therefore, this ratio was useful for predicting prognosis of aneurysmal SAH, especially in severe cases.

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Yasushi Motoyama, Tsukasa Nakajima, Yoshiaki Takamura, Tsutomu Nakazawa, Daisuke Wajima, Yasuhiro Takeshima, Ryosuke Matsuda, Kentaro Tamura, Shuichi Yamada, Hiroshi Yokota, Ichiro Nakagawa, Fumihiko Nishimura, Young-Su Park, Mitsutoshi Nakamura, and Hiroyuki Nakase

OBJECTIVE

Lumbar spinal drainage (LSD) during neurosurgery can have an important effect by facilitating a smooth procedure when needed. However, LSD is quite invasive, and the pathology of brain herniation associated with LSD has become known recently. The objective of this study was to determine the risk of postoperative brain herniation after craniotomy with LSD in neurosurgery overall.

METHODS

Included were 239 patients who underwent craniotomy with LSD for various types of neurological diseases between January 2007 and December 2016. The authors performed propensity score matching to establish a proper control group taken from among 1424 patients who underwent craniotomy and met the inclusion criteria during the same period. The incidences of postoperative brain herniation between the patients who underwent craniotomy with LSD (group A, n = 239) and the matched patients who underwent craniotomy without LSD (group B, n = 239) were compared.

RESULTS

Brain herniation was observed in 24 patients in group A and 8 patients in group B (OR 3.21, 95% CI 1.36–8.46, p = 0.005), but the rate of favorable outcomes was higher in group A (OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.18–2.76, p = 0.005). Of the 24 patients, 18 had uncal herniation, 5 had central herniation, and 1 had uncal and subfalcine herniation; 8 patients with other than subarachnoid hemorrhage were included. Significant differences in the rates of deep approach (OR 5.12, 95% CI 1.8–14.5, p = 0.002) and temporal craniotomy (OR 10.2, 95% CI 2.3–44.8, p = 0.002) were found between the 2 subgroups (those with and those without herniation) in group A. In 5 patients, brain herniation proceeded even after external decompression (ED). Cox regression analysis revealed that the risk of brain herniation related to LSD increased with ED (hazard ratio 3.326, 95% CI 1.491–7.422, p < 0.001). Among all 1424 patients, ED resulted in progression or deterioration of brain herniation more frequently in those who underwent LSD than it did in those who did not undergo LSD (OR 9.127, 95% CI 1.82–62.1, p = 0.004).

CONCLUSIONS

Brain herniation downward to the tentorial hiatus is more likely to occur after craniotomy with LSD than after craniotomy without LSD. Using a deep approach and craniotomy involving the temporal areas are risk factors for brain herniation related to LSD. Additional ED would aggravate brain herniation after LSD. The risk of brain herniation after placement of a lumbar spinal drain during neurosurgery must be considered even when LSD is essential.

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Ching-Jen Chen, Thomas J. Buell, Daniel M. S. Raper, Min S. Park, M. Yashar Kalani, Natasha Ironside, Robert F. James, and Dale Ding