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Osamu Sasaki, Tetsuo Koike, Ryuichi Tanaka, and Hiroshi Ogawa

✓ A case of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) from a dissecting aneurysm of the inferior limb of the middle cerebral artery is reported. The patient's clinical status and the initial and follow-up angiographic appearance of the aneurysm are presented. Diagnosis and treatment are briefly discussed. It is suggested that, if angiography demonstrates luminal narrowing or vascular occlusion in a patient with unexplained SAH, a dissecting aneurysm of the carotid system should be considered as a cause of the hemorrhage.

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Hiroshi Kashimura, Kuniaki Ogasawara, Yoshitaka Kubo, Yasunari Otawara, and Akira Ogawa

✓ A technique is described for removing previously placed aneurysm clips and applying new aneurysm clips for the treatment of regrown or reruptured cerebral aneurysms in patients more than 10 years after the original clipping of the aneurysm neck. The adherent tissue covering previously placed clips is cut just on and alongside the clips themselves using a small scalpel. Using the clip applicator, gentle pressure is applied to open the clip blade as little as possible. The aneurysm clip is carefully slid out along the line where the clip blade has resided, and a new aneurysm clip is applied. The procedure was successfully accomplished in four patients. Whereas three of these patients had an uneventful postoperative course, the remaining patient experienced transient right oculomotor nerve palsy and left-sided motor weakness. The present technique is a useful procedure for treatment of regrown or reruptured cerebral aneurysms occurring a significantly long time after initial clipping of an aneurysm neck.

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Tomoko Kobayashi, Akira Ogawa, Motonobu Kameyama, Hiroshi Uenohara, and Takashi Yoshimoto

✓ A unique case is reported of Chiari malformation and compression of the medulla oblongata by both vertebral arteries. A 39-year-old woman complained of unsteady gait and motor weakness of the legs, and magnetic resonance imaging revealed the malformation and compression. Vascular decompression of the vertebral arteries was performed using synthetic (Gore-tex) vascular strips following posterior fossa decompression.

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Osamu Sasaki, Hiroshi Ogawa, Tetsuo Koike, Takayuki Koizumi, and Ryuichi Tanaka

✓ Five autopsied cases of dissecting aneurysms of the intracranial vertebral artery are reported and the literature is reviewed to clarify the clinicopathological correlations. In an autopsy series of 110 patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), the incidence of this entity was 4.5%, with all five cases progressing rapidly to death from massive SAH. Cases of intracranial vertebral dissection can be divided clearly into two groups based on the clinical and pathological features. In the first group, the dissection is confined to the vertebral artery and a massive SAH develops caused by the rupture of the arterial wall. The plane of dissection is mainly subadventitial. In the second group, brain-stem infarction develops resulting from luminal occlusion by intramural hematoma. The plane of dissection is mainly subintimal, with the dissection extending to the basilar artery. The condition in the second group affects patients at a younger age. If the lesion is localized within the vertebral artery and does not extend to the basilar artery, the disease seems not to be fatal. The clinical features of the vertebral dissection are largely determined by the plane and extension of dissection. Vertebral artery dissection is due to many causative factors including hypertension, congenital or degenerative changes in the arterial wall, and anatomical and pathological characteristics of the vertebral artery.

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Osamu Sasaki, Ryuichi Tanaka, Tetsuo Koike, Akira Koide, Takayuki Koizumi, and Hiroshi Ogawa

✓ The case of a patient presenting with dysphasic seizures due to a cavernous angioma coexisting with a venous malformation is reported. The cavernous angioma was resected with preservation of the venous malformation, as confirmed by postoperative studies. The patient was seizure-free following surgery.

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Hiroshi Kashimura, Takashi Inoue, Kuniaki Ogasawara, Hiroshi Arai, Yasunari Otawara, Yoshiyuki Kanbara, and Akira Ogawa


Preoperative planning for meningiomas requires information about tumor consistency as well as location and size. In the present study the authors aimed to determine whether the fractional anisotropy (FA) value calculated on the basis of preoperative magnetic resonance (MR) diffusion tensor (DT) imaging could predict meningioma consistency.


In 29 patients with intracranial meningiomas, MR DT imaging was performed preoperatively, and the FA values of the tumors were calculated. Tumor consistency was intraoperatively determined as hard or soft, and the histological diagnosis of the tumor was established.


Of the 29 tumors, 11 were classified as hard and 18 as soft. The FA values of fibroblastic meningiomas were significantly higher than those of meningothelial meningiomas (p = 0.002). The FA values of hard tumors were significantly higher than those of soft tumors (p = 0.0003). Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the FA value was a significant independent predictor of tumor consistency (p = 0.007).


The FA value calculated from preoperative MR DT imaging predicts meningioma consistency.

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Kyousuke Kamada, Hiroshi Ogawa, Christoph Kapeller, Robert Prueckl, Satoru Hiroshima, Yukie Tamura, Fumiya Takeuchi, and Christoph Guger


Recent neuroimaging studies suggest that intractable epilepsy involves pathological functional networks as well as strong epileptogenic foci. Combining cortico-cortical evoked potential (CCEP) recording and tractography is a useful strategy for mapping functional connectivity in normal and pathological networks. In this study, the authors sought to demonstrate the efficacy of preoperative combined CCEP recording, high gamma activity (HGA) mapping, and tractography for surgical planning, and of intraoperative CCEP measures for confirmation of selective pathological network disconnection.


The authors treated 4 cases of intractable epilepsy. Diffusion tensor imaging–based tractography data were acquired before the first surgery for subdural grid implantation. HGA and CCEP investigations were done after the first surgery, before the second surgery was performed to resect epileptogenic foci, with continuous CCEP monitoring during resection.


All 4 patients in this report had measurable pathological CCEPs. The mean negative peak-1 latency of normal CCEPs related to language functions was 22.2 ± 3.5 msec, whereas pathological CCEP latencies varied between 18.1 and 22.4 msec. Pathological CCEPs diminished after complete disconnection in all cases. At last follow-up, all of the patients were in long-term postoperative seizure-free status, although 1 patient still suffered from visual aura every other month.


Combined CCEP measurement, HGA mapping, and tractography greatly facilitated targeted disconnection of pathological networks in this study. Although CCEP recording requires technical expertise, it allows for assessment of pathological network involvement in intractable epilepsy and may improve seizure outcome.

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Yoshikazu Nakajima, Toshiki Yoshimine, Makoto Ogawa, Mayako Takanashi, Kana Nakamuta, Motohiko Maruno, Hiroshi Hasegawa, and Junichiro Yokota

✓ The authors present a rare case of a giant intracranial mucocele associated with an orbitoethmoidal osteoma in a patient suffering from a generalized convulsive disorder. The broad pedicle of the osteoma had penetrated the cribriform plate and extended intracranially to form a nodular mass in the olfactory groove. The intracranial portion of the osteoma was surrounded by a mucocele. Both the cyst wall and multilayered intracystic septations of the mucocele were indented by layers of the osteoma. Although the extracranial portion adhered to the mucosa of the ethmoidal sinus, there were no signs of sinus obstruction. No direct communication other than the osteoma was identified between the mucocele and the ethmoidal mucosa. The large cerebral defect, which the mucocele occupied, communicated directly with the lateral ventricle without any intervening membranous structures. A frontal craniotomy is recommended for exposure of the lesion and plastic repair of the dural defect.

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Kuniaki Ogasawara, Yoshitaka Kubo, Nobuhiko Tomitsuka, Masayuki Sasoh, Yasunari Otawara, Hiroshi Arai, and Akira Ogawa

✓ The authors describe transposition of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) to the vertebral artery (VA) combined with parent artery occlusion for the treatment of VA aneurysms in cases in which a clip could not be applied because of the origin of the ipsilateral PICA. The aneurysm is trapped through a lower lateral suboccipital craniectomy. The PICA is then cut just distal to the aneurysm, and the PICA and VA proximal to the aneurysm are anastomosed in an end-to-end or end-to-side fashion.

The surgical procedure was successfully performed in two patients, each of whom had hypoplastic occipital arteries (OAs). The PICA contralateral to the lesion was hypoplastic in one patient and distant to the ipsilateral PICA in the other patient. Mild transient dysphagia developed postoperatively in one patient due to glossopharyngeal and vagus nerve palsy, and the other patient had an uneventful postoperative course. In both patients, postoperative cerebral angiography demonstrated good patency of the transposed PICA. These results show that transposition of the PICA to the VA is a useful procedure for the reconstruction of the PICA when parent artery occlusion is necessary to exclude a VA aneurysm involving the origin of the PICA and when OA–PICA anastomosis or PICA–PICA anastomosis cannot be performed.