Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 6 of 6 items for

  • Author or Editor: Hiroki Takai x
  • Refine by Access: all x
Clear All Modify Search
Restricted access

Hiroki Yoshida, Keisuke Takai, and Makoto Taniguchi

Object

The purpose of this study was to describe significant CT myelography findings for determination of the leak site and outcome of targeted epidural blood patch (EBP) in patients with spontaneous CSF leaks.

Methods

During 2005–2013, spontaneous CSF leaks were diagnosed for 12 patients with orthostatic headaches. The patients received targeted EBP on the basis of CT myelography assessments.

Results

Computed tomography myelograms revealed ventral extradural collection of contrast medium distributed over multiple spinal levels (average 16 levels). Intraforaminal contrast medium extravasations were observed at multiple spinal levels (average 8.2 levels). For 8 (67%) of 12 patients, spinal lesions were noted around the thecal sac and included calcified discs with osteophytes, an ossified posterior longitudinal ligament, and an ossified yellow ligament; lesions were mostly located ventral to the thecal sac and were in close contact with the dura mater. The levels of these spinal lesions were considered potential leak sites and were targeted for EBP. For the remaining 4 patients who did not have definite spinal lesions around the thecal sac, leak site determination was based primarily on the contrast gradient hypothesis. The authors hypothesized that the concentration of extradural contrast medium would be the greatest and the same as that of intradural contrast medium at the leak site but that it would decrease with increased distance from the leak site according to the contrast gradient.

Epidural blood patch was placed at the level of spinal lesions and/or of the greatest and same concentration of contrast medium between the intradural and extradural spaces. For 10 of the 12 patients, the orthostatic headaches decreased significantly within a week of EBP and disappeared within a month. For the remaining 2 patients, headaches persisted and medical treatment was required for several months. For 3 patients, thick chronic subdural hematomas caused severe headaches and/or disturbed consciousness because of the mass effect of the hematomas, which were removed by bur hole drainage surgery. For 1 patient, bur hole drainage before EBP on the day of admission to hospital resulted in subdural tension pneumocephalus. The patient's headache immediately disappeared after EBP, and the hematoma did not recur. The other 2 patients underwent EBP followed by bur hole drainage, which resulted in improvements and disappearance of the hematomas. Over the follow-up period (mean 39 months), no CSF leaks or chronic subdural hematomas had recurred in any patient after EBP; by the final follow-up visit, all patients had returned to their jobs.

Conclusions

The most significant finding of this study was that spinal ventral calcified or ossified lesions, which may be associated with a dural tear, were present in approximately 70% of patients. Targeted EBP to these lesions resulted in good outcomes.

Full access

Hiroki Hongo, Keisuke Takai, Takashi Komori, and Makoto Taniguchi

OBJECTIVE

The intraoperative differentiation of ependymomas from astrocytomas is important because neurosurgical strategies differ between these two tumor groups. Previous studies have reported that the diagnostic accuracy of intraoperative frozen sections of intracranial central nervous system (CNS) tumors is higher than 83%–97%, whereas that for spinal intramedullary tumors remains unknown. Herein, authors tested the hypothesis that intraoperative frozen-section diagnosis is the gold standard for a differential diagnosis of intramedullary spinal cord tumors.

METHODS

The clinical characteristics, intraoperative histological diagnosis from frozen sections, extent of tumor resection, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) of 49 cases of intramedullary spinal cord ependymomas (n = 32) and astrocytomas (n = 17) were retrospectively evaluated.

RESULTS

The frozen-section diagnosis and final diagnosis with permanent sections agreed in 23 (72%) of 32 cases of ependymoma. Of the 9 cases of ependymoma in which the frozen-section diagnosis disagreed with the final diagnosis, 4 were incorrectly diagnosed as astrocytoma and the other 5 cases had a nonspecific diagnosis, such as glioma. Nonetheless, gross-total resection was achieved in 6 of these 9 cases given the presence of a dissection plane. The frozen-section diagnosis and final diagnosis agreed in 12 (71%) of 17 cases of astrocytoma. Of the 5 cases of astrocytoma in which the frozen-section diagnosis disagreed with the final diagnosis, 1 was incorrectly diagnosed as ependymoma and the other 4 had a nonspecific diagnosis. Gross-total resection was achieved in only 1 of these 5 cases.

A relationship between the size of tumor specimens and the diagnostic accuracy of frozen sections was not observed. Ependymal rosettes and perivascular pseudorosettes were observed in 30% and 57% of ependymomas, respectively, but were absent in astrocytomas.

Progression-free survival and OS were both significantly longer in cases of ependymoma than in cases of astrocytoma (p < 0.001). Gross-total resection was achieved in 69% of ependymomas and was associated with longer PFS (p = 0.041). In the astrocytoma group, gross-total resection was achieved in only 12% and there was no relationship between extent of resection and OS. Tumor grades tended to correlate with OS in astrocytomas (p = 0.079).

CONCLUSIONS

The diagnostic accuracy of intraoperative frozen sections was lower for intramedullary spinal cord ependymomas and astrocytomas in the present study than that for intracranial CNS tumors reported on in the literature. Surgical strategies need to be selected based on multiple factors, such as clinical characteristics, preoperative imaging, frozen-section diagnosis, and intraoperative findings of the tumor plane.

Full access

Kimihiko Yokosuka, Masaaki Uno, Kohei Matsumura, Hiroki Takai, Hirotaka Hagino, Nobuhisa Matsushita, Hiroyuki Toi, and Shunji Matsubara

OBJECT

Endoscopic surgery was performed for acute or subacute subdural hematoma (SDH), and its effectiveness and safety in elderly patients were evaluated.

METHODS

Between September 2007 and November 2013, endoscopic surgery was performed in 11 elderly patients with acute SDH (8 patients) and subacute SDH (3 patients). The criteria for surgery were as follows: 1) the presence of clinical symptoms; 2) age older than 70 years; 3) no brain injury (intracerebral hematoma, brain contusion); 4) absence of an enlarging SDH; and 5) no high risk of bleeding. Hematoma evacuation was performed with a 4-mm rigid endoscope with a 0° lens and a malleable irrigation suction cannula.

RESULTS

Endoscopic surgery was performed under local anesthesia. The mean age of the patients was 82.6 years (range 73–91 years). There were 5 female and 6 male patients. The mean preoperative Glasgow Coma Scale score was 12, and 5 patients had been receiving antithrombotic drug therapy. The mean operation time was 85 minutes. Only 1 patient had rebleeding, and reoperation with the same technique was performed uneventfully in this individual. A total of 7 patients had a good recovery (modified Rankin Scale Score 0–2) at discharge.

CONCLUSIONS

Endoscopic hematoma evacuation of acute and subacute SDH is a safe and effective method of clot removal that minimizes operative complications. This technique may be a less invasive method for treating elderly patients with acute and subacute SDHs.

Free access

Keisuke Takai, Hiroki Kurita, Takayuki Hara, Kensuke Kawai, and Makoto Taniguchi

OBJECTIVE

The microvascular anatomy of spinal perimedullary arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) is more complicated than that of dural AVFs, and occlusion rates of AVF after open microsurgery or endovascular embolization are lower in patients with perimedullary AVFs (29%–70%) than they are in those with dural AVF (97%–98%). Reports of intraoperative blood flow assessment using indocyanine green (ICG) video angiography in spinal arteriovenous lesions have mostly been for spinal dural AVFs. No detailed reports on spinal perimedullary AVFs are available.

METHODS

Participants were 11 patients with spinal perimedullary AVFs (Type IVa in 5 patients, Type VIb in 4, and Type IVc in 2). Intraoperative ICG video angiography was assessed by measuring the number of cases in which this modality was judged essential by the surgeon to correctly occlude the fistula.

RESULTS

In all patients, arterial feeders were identified and intravenous ICG video angiography was performed before and after blocking the feeders. In one patient, selective intraarterial ICG video angiography was also performed. The findings provided by ICG video angiography significantly changed the surgical procedure in 4 of 11 patients (36%). Postoperatively, complete occlusion of the AVF was achieved in 10 of the 11 patients (91%).

CONCLUSIONS

Intraoperative ICG video angiography can have a significant impact on deciding surgical strategy in the microsurgical treatment of spinal perimedullary AVF.

Full access

Hiroyuki Toi, Keita Kinoshita, Satoshi Hirai, Hiroki Takai, Keijiro Hara, Nobuhisa Matsushita, Shunji Matsubara, Makoto Otani, Keiji Muramatsu, Shinya Matsuda, Kiyohide Fushimi, and Masaaki Uno

OBJECTIVE

Aging of the population may lead to epidemiological changes with respect to chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH). The objectives of this study were to elucidate the current epidemiology and changing trends of CSDH in Japan. The authors analyzed patient information based on reports using a Japanese administrative database associated with the diagnosis procedure combination (DPC) system.

METHODS

This study included patients with newly diagnosed CSDH who were treated in hospitals participating in the DPC system. The authors collected data from the administrative database on the following clinical and demographic characteristics: patient age, sex, and level of consciousness on admission; treatment procedure; and outcome at discharge.

RESULTS

A total of 63,358 patients with newly diagnosed CSDH and treated in 1750 DPC participation hospitals were included in this study. Analysis according to patient age showed that the most common age range for these patients was the 9th decade of life (in their 80s). More than half of patients 70 years old or older presented with some kind of disturbance of consciousness. Functional outcomes at discharge were good in 71.6% (modified Rankin Scale [mRS] score 0–2) of cases and poor in 28.4% (mRS score 3–6). The percentage of poor outcomes tended to be higher in elderly patients. Approximately 40% of patients 90 years old or older could not be discharged to home. The overall recurrence rate for CSDH was 13.1%.

CONCLUSIONS

This study shows a chronological change in the age distribution of CSDH among Japanese patients, which may be affecting the prognosis of this condition. In the aging population of contemporary Japan, patients in their 80s were affected more often than patients in other age categories, and approximately 30% of patients with CSDH required some help at discharge. CSDH thus may no longer have as good a prognosis as had been thought.

Open access

Masafumi Hiramatsu, Ryota Ishibashi, Etsuji Suzuki, Yuko Miyazaki, Satoshi Murai, Hiroki Takai, Yuji Takasugi, Yoko Yamaoka, Kazuhiko Nishi, Yu Takahashi, Jun Haruma, Tomohito Hishikawa, Takao Yasuhara, Masaki Chin, Shunji Matsubara, Masaaki Uno, Koji Tokunaga, Kenji Sugiu, and Isao Date

OBJECTIVE

There have been no accurate surveillance data regarding the incidence rate of spinal arteriovenous shunts (SAVSs). Here, the authors investigate the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of SAVSs.

METHODS

The authors conducted multicenter hospital-based surveillance as an inventory survey at 8 core hospitals in Okayama Prefecture between April 1, 2009, and March 31, 2019. Consecutive patients who lived in Okayama and were diagnosed with SAVSs on angiographic studies were enrolled. The clinical characteristics and the incidence rates of each form of SAVS and the differences between SAVSs at different spinal levels were analyzed.

RESULTS

The authors identified a total of 45 patients with SAVSs, including 2 cases of spinal arteriovenous malformation, 5 cases of perimedullary arteriovenous fistula (AVF), 31 cases of spinal dural AVF (SDAVF), and 7 cases of spinal epidural AVF (SEAVF). The crude incidence rate was 0.234 per 100,000 person-years for all SAVSs including those at the craniocervical junction (CCJ) level. The incidence rate of SDAVF and SEAVF combined increased with advancing age in men only. In a comparative analysis between upper and lower spinal SDAVF/SEAVF, hemorrhage occurred in 7/14 cases (50%) at the CCJ/cervical level and in 0/24 cases (0%) at the thoracolumbar level (p = 0.0003). Venous congestion appeared in 1/14 cases (7%) at the CCJ/cervical level and in 23/24 cases (96%) at the thoracolumbar level (p < 0.0001).

CONCLUSIONS

The authors reported detailed incidence rates of SAVSs in Japan. There were some differences in clinical characteristics of SAVSs in the upper spinal levels and those in the lower spinal levels.