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Hiroki Morisako, Takeo Goto and Kenji Ohata

OBJECT

Petroclival meningiomas are among the most challenging intracranial tumors to treat surgically. Many skull base approaches have been described to improve resection and decrease patient morbidity. The authors undertook this study to evaluate the results of their treatment of petroclival meningiomas using objective measurements of tumor volume and a new impairment scoring system to assess neurological symptoms that severely affect the patient's quality of life, such as impairment of swallowing and speaking, motor function, and consciousness and communication.

METHODS

Between January 1990 and December 2009, the authors used a combined transpetrosal approach to treat 60 patients with benign (WHO Grade I) petroclival meningiomas. In this retrospective study, all 60 cases were analyzed in detail with regard to tumor volume, extent of resection (EOR), long-term tumor control, neurological outcome, and the patient condition. In addition, patients were divided into 2 groups according to the period during which the surgery was performed: the early group, from 1990 to 1999, and the late group, from 2000 to 2009. A new scoring system, the petroclival meningioma impairment scale (PCMIS), was created for quantitative assessment of 8 categories of neurological functions, with scores assigned in each category according to the level of disability and its impact on the patient. The PCMIS was used preoperatively, at 3 months after surgery, and at the time of the last follow-up examination, and the results for the 2 groups were compared.

RESULTS

There were 24 cases in the early group (1990–1999), and the mean duration of follow-up was 149.3 months. The mean EOR was 96.1%, and good long-term tumor control was obtained in 22 patients (91.7%). One of patients died because of a postoperative complication in the perioperative period. The PCMIS improved in 3 patients (12.5%), remained stable in 1 (4.2%), and worsened in 20 (83.3%). There were 36 cases in the late group (2000–2009), and the mean duration of follow-up was 77.9 months. The mean EOR was 92.7%, and good long-term tumor control was obtained in 34 patients (94.4%). The PCMIS score improved in 23 patients (63.9%), remained stable in 5 (13.9%), and worsened in 8 (22.2%).

CONCLUSIONS

The combined transpetrosal approach has provided satisfactory functional improvements and excellent tumor control for patients with petroclival meningiomas. The PCMIS provides a specific tool for quantitative assessment of the patient's state.

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Hiroki Morisako, Takeo Goto, Hiroki Ohata, Sachin Ranganatha Goudihalli, Keisuke Shirosaka and Kenji Ohata

OBJECTIVE

Meningiomas arising from the cavernous sinus (CS) continue to be a significant technical challenge, and resection continues to carry a relatively higher risk of neurological morbidity in patients with these lesions because of the tumor’s proximity to neurovascular structures. The authors report the surgical outcomes of 9 patients with primary CS meningiomas (CSMs) that were surgically treated using a minimal anterior and posterior combined (MAPC) transpetrosal approach, and they emphasize the usefulness of the approach.

METHODS

This retrospective study included 9 patients who underwent surgery for CSM treatment between 2015 and 2016 via the MAPC transpetrosal approach. Two patients were men and 7 were women, with a mean age of 58.5 years (39–72 years). Five patients (55.5%) had undergone previous treatment. The surgical technique consisted of a temporo-occipito-suboccipital craniotomy and exposure of the posterolateral part of the CS via the presigmoidal MAPC approach. After opening Meckel’s cave and identifying the 3rd–5th cranial nerves in the prepontine cistern, Parkinson’s triangle and supratrochlear triangles were opened. Finally, the tumor occupying the posterolateral part of the CS was removed.

RESULTS

All lesions were safely and maximally removed, with preservation of external ocular movements and preoperative Karnofsky Performance Scale scores. The mean extent of resection was 77.0% (range 58.7%–95.4%). Six patients underwent adjuvant therapy in the form of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) or stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) during the follow-up period; none of these patients experienced recurrence.

CONCLUSION

The authors conclude that the MAPC transpetrosal approach could be superior to other approaches for CSMs, as it provides direct visual access to the posterolateral portion of the CS. In their experience, this approach is an alternative and better option for safe maximal resection of CSMs.

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Hiroki Morisako, Takeo Goto, Hiroyuki Goto, Christian Aisse Bohoun, Samantha Tamrakar and Kenji Ohata

OBJECTIVE

Craniopharyngiomas remain a particularly formidable challenge in the neurosurgical field. Because these lesions involve the hypothalamus and ophthalmological systems, their resection is associated with either higher rates of mortality and recurrence or a lower rate of radical resection. The authors report the outcomes of aggressive surgeries based on an anatomical subclassification of craniopharyngiomas.

METHODS

Clinical and ophthalmological examinations, imaging studies, endocrinological studies, neuropsychological function, and surgical complications in all patients who had undergone microsurgical resection for craniopharyngioma at Osaka City University hospital between January 2000 and December 2014 were retrospectively reviewed through the medical records. Radical resections were planned in all of the patients. To help choose the correct surgical approach, craniopharyngiomas were classified based on tumor origin. The 4 possible groups included the intrasellar type, prechiasmatic type, retrochiasmatic type, and intra–third ventricle type. A multistage surgery was planned in some cases.

RESULTS

Seventy-two cases of craniopharyngioma were resected. Thirty-two patients (44.4%) had undergone previous surgical procedures at other institutions. Thirty-five cases (48.6%) were classified as retrochiasmatic, 19 (26.4%) as prechiasmatic, 12 (16.7%) as intra–third ventricle, and 6 (8.3%) as intrasellar. In 26 cases (36.1%), multistage surgery was required to complete the radical resection. Overall, 41 cases involved an orbitozygomatic approach; 21, a transpetrosal approach; 21, an interhemispheric approach; and 14, a transsphenoidal approach. In 3 cases, other approaches were applied. Gross-total resection was achieved in 43 patients (59.7%), near-total resection in 28 (38.9%), and partial resection in only 1 patient (1.4%). The mean follow-up period after resection was 4.7 years. Tumor recurrence or regrowth occurred in 15 (20.8%) of the 72 patients, with 14 of the 15 cases successfully controlled after additional resections and stereotactic radiosurgery. However, 1 patient died of uncontrollable tumor progression, and 2 patients died of unrelated diseases during the follow-up. Overall, disease in 69 (95.8%) of 72 patients was well controlled at the last follow-up.

CONCLUSIONS

Aggressive tumor resection is the authors' treatment policy for craniopharyngioma. Using an anatomical subclassification of craniopharyngioma to choose the most appropriate surgical approach is helpful in achieving that goal of aggressive resection.

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Hiroki Morisako, Takeo Goto, Christian A. Bohoun, Hironori Arima, Tsutomu Ichinose and Kenji Ohata

Surgical resection of pontine cavernous malformation remains a particularly formidable challenge. We report the surgical outcome of eight cases with pontine cavernous malformations operated using the anterior transpetrosal approach. All cases presented with neurological deficits caused by hemorrhage before surgery. Gross-total removal was achieved in all cases without any postoperative complication such as worsening of facial nerve palsy, ocular movement disorder, or hemiplegia. A small incision of the pons with multidirectional dissection is the most important factor for minimizing postoperative neurological deficits, so resection of a pontine cavernous malformation via this approach can be an alternative better option.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/2Q2CUhBbo28.

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André Beer-Furlan, Ali O. Jamshidi, Ricardo L. Carrau and Daniel M. Prevedello

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Hiroki Ohata, Takeo Goto, Alhusain Nagm, Narasinga Rao Kannepalli, Kosuke Nakajo, Hiroki Morisako, Hiroyuki Goto, Takehiro Uda, Shinichi Kawahara and Kenji Ohata

OBJECTIVE

The endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) for skull base tumors has become an important topic in recent years, but its use, merits, and demerits are still being debated. Herein, the authors describe the nuances and efficacy of the endoscopic endonasal extradural posterior clinoidectomy for maximal tumor exposure.

METHODS

The surgical technique included extradural posterior clinoidectomy following lateral retraction of the paraclival internal carotid artery and extradural pituitary transposition. In cases with prominent posterior clinoid process, a midline sellar dura cut was added to facilitate extradural exposure. Forty-four consecutive patients, in whom this technique was performed between 2016 and 2018 at Osaka City University Hospital, were reviewed. The pathology included 19 craniopharyngiomas, 7 chordomas, 6 meningiomas, 6 pituitary adenomas, 4 chondrosarcomas, and 2 miscellaneous. Utilization and effectiveness of this approach were further demonstrated with neuroimaging.

RESULTS

Extradural posterior clinoidectomies were successfully applied in all patients without permanent neurovascular injury and with better maneuverability and greater resection rate of the tumors. Four patients experienced transient postoperative abducens nerve paresis, and 1 patient experienced transient postoperative oculomotor nerve paresis; however, the patients with deficits recovered within 3 months. On radiological examination, the surgical field was 2.2 times wider in cases with bilateral posterior clinoidectomy than in cases without posterior clinoidectomy.

CONCLUSIONS

The extended EEA with extradural posterior clinoidectomy creates an extra working space and allows adequate accessibility with safe surgical maneuverability to remove tumors that extend behind the posterior clinoid and dorsum sellae.