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Jun Shinoda, Hirohito Yano, Shin-Ichi Yoshimura, Ayumi Okumura, Yasuhiko Kaku, Toru Iwama and Noboru Sakai

✓ The authors have recently performed a fluorescence-guided tumor resection procedure by using high-dose fluorescein sodium without any special surgical microscopes for the intraoperative visualization of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), and they report on the actual procedure and clinicopathological findings.

Thirty-two patients with GBMs underwent tumor resection during which this fluorescence-guided procedure was used. Fluorescein sodium (20 mg/kg) was intravenously injected after dural opening at the craniotomy site. The tumor was stained almost homogeneously yellow and the color was intense enough to be readily perceived for resection. The center of the solid lesion was stained a deep yellow and surrounded by a transition zone that was faintly stained. The colored lesion was clearly distinguishable from the unstained zone outside the GBM, particularly in the white matter. Both the deeply and faintly stained regions included endothelial proliferation and dense tumor cells. In the unstained region, less dense tumor cells were consistently revealed; however, no endothelial proliferation could be seen. Grosstotal resection (GTR) was successful in 84.4% of the patients who received an injection of fluorescein sodium, which accounted for 100% of those in whom all the visible yellow color (both the deeply and faintly stained regions) was judged to have been resected during operation. Gross-total resection was performed in 100% of the patients who underwent the fluorescence-guided procedure and assigned to Stage I, a GBM stage in which, as a therapeutic policy, the tumor should be resected as radically as possible. The GTR rates in patients who received fluorescein sodium were significantly higher than those in patients who did not (73 patients with GBMs who underwent tumor resection without the fluorescence-guided procedure). Although the extent of surgery was revealed to be one of the significant and independent prognostic factors for GBM, the fluorescein sodium—guided resection procedure was not a significant or independent prognostic factor in this series.

This surgical procedure does not require any special surgical microscopic equipment and is simple, safe, useful, readily accomplished, and universally available for resection of GBMs. Its efficacy simplifies the surgical procedure of navigating the stained lesion from the unstained area to achieve GTR of GBMs, which can be demonstrated on magnetic resonance images.

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Hiroaki Takei, Jun Shinoda, Soko Ikuta, Takashi Maruyama, Yoshihiro Muragaki, Tomohiro Kawasaki, Yuka Ikegame, Makoto Okada, Takeshi Ito, Yoshitaka Asano, Kazutoshi Yokoyama, Noriyuki Nakayama, Hirohito Yano and Toru Iwama

OBJECTIVE

Positron emission tomography (PET) is important in the noninvasive diagnostic imaging of gliomas. There are many PET studies on glioma diagnosis based on the 2007 WHO classification; however, there are no studies on glioma diagnosis using the new classification (the 2016 WHO classification). Here, the authors investigated the relationship between uptake of 11C-methionine (MET), 11C-choline (CHO), and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) on PET imaging and isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) status (wild-type [IDH-wt] or mutant [IDH-mut]) in astrocytic and oligodendroglial tumors according to the 2016 WHO classification.

METHODS

In total, 105 patients with newly diagnosed cerebral gliomas (6 diffuse astrocytomas [DAs] with IDH-wt, 6 DAs with IDH-mut, 7 anaplastic astrocytomas [AAs] with IDH-wt, 24 AAs with IDH-mut, 26 glioblastomas [GBMs] with IDH-wt, 5 GBMs with IDH-mut, 19 oligodendrogliomas [ODs], and 12 anaplastic oligodendrogliomas [AOs]) were included. All OD and AO patients had both IDH-mut and 1p/19q codeletion. The maximum standardized uptake value (SUV) of the tumor/mean SUV of normal cortex (T/N) ratios for MET, CHO, and FDG were calculated, and the mean T/N ratios of DA, AA, and GBM with IDH-wt and IDH-mut were compared. The diagnostic accuracy for distinguishing gliomas with IDH-wt from those with IDH-mut was assessed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis of the mean T/N ratios for the 3 PET tracers.

RESULTS

There were significant differences in the mean T/N ratios for all 3 PET tracers between the IDH-wt and IDH-mut groups of all histological classifications (p < 0.001). Among the 27 gliomas with mean T/N ratios higher than the cutoff values for all 3 PET tracers, 23 (85.2%) were classified into the IDH-wt group using ROC analysis. In DA, there were no significant differences in the T/N ratios for MET, CHO, and FDG between the IDH-wt and IDH-mut groups. In AA, the mean T/N ratios of all 3 PET tracers in the IDH-wt group were significantly higher than those in the IDH-mut group (p < 0.01). In GBM, the mean T/N ratio in the IDH-wt group was significantly higher than that in the IDH-mut group for both MET (p = 0.034) and CHO (p = 0.01). However, there was no significant difference in the ratio for FDG.

CONCLUSIONS

PET imaging using MET, CHO, and FDG was suggested to be informative for preoperatively differentiating gliomas according to the 2016 WHO classification, particularly for differentiating IDH-wt and IDH-mut tumors.