✓ Chondromas arising from the dura mater are rare intracranial tumors. The authors present a case of intracranial giant chondroma originating from the dura mater of the convexity. Neuroimaging and surgical findings are described. The diagnostic clues are discussed and similar cases from the literature are reviewed.
Case report and review of the literature
Masaki Nakayama, Tetsuya Nagayama, Hirofumi Hirano, Tatsuki Oyoshi and Jun-ichi Kuratsu
Tetsuya Nagayama, Masatomo Kaji, Hirofumi Hirano, Masaki Niiro and Jun-ichi Kuratsu
✓ The authors report on a 52-year-old woman with a cerebellar hemangioblastoma who presented with a 2-year history of intractable hiccups. Computerized tomography scans and magnetic resonance images revealed a cerebellar hemangioblastoma with compression of the brainstem at the level of the medulla oblongata. The patient has been free of hiccups and has been neurologically intact since the day after total removal of the tumor. A review of the literature on medullary lesions presenting with intractable hiccups is provided.
Osamu Miyanohara, Hideo Takeshima, Masatomo Kaji, Hirofumi Hirano, Yutaka Sawamura, Masato Kochi and Jun-Ichi Kuratsu
Object. Overexpression of the protooncogene c-kit has been suggested in a gonadal germ cell tumor (GCT). Recently, the soluble isoform of c-kit (s-kit) has been expressed in a variety of cell types. The goal of this study was to investigate the expression of c-kit and the clinical significance of s-kit in patients with GCTs.
Methods. The authors first conducted an immunohistochemical investigation of the expression of the c-kit protein in 27 surgical specimens. In all 18 specimens that contained germinomas, c-kit was diffusely expressed on the cell surface of the germinoma cells, but was not found on lymphocytes or interstitial cells. In seven of eight immature teratomas, only some mature components, such as cartilage and glands, were immunoreactive for c-kit. Syncytiotrophoblastic giant cells (STGCs) demonstrated negative findings as well, suggesting that primarily germinoma cells express c-kit. Next, 47 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples collected from 32 patients with GCTs (15 samples from patients with pure germinomas, 16 from patients with STGC germinomas, 14 from patients with teratomas, and two from a patient with a choriocarcinoma) were analyzed using a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The level of s-kit was significantly higher in CSF collected from patients with germinomas and STGC germinomas than in CSF collected from patients with teratomas or non—germ cell brain tumors, or in CSF collected from controls. The concentration of s-kit in CSF was correlated with the patient's clinical course; it was significantly higher in pretreatment samples obtained before and in samples obtained at the time of tumor recurrence than in samples collected from patients in whom the tumor was in remission. The level of s-kit was remarkably high in CSF collected from patients with subarachnoid tumor dissemination.
Conclusions. These results indicate that the concentration of s-kit in CSF may be a useful clinical marker for germinomas, especially for detecting recurrence or subarachnoid dissemination of these lesions.
Hirofumi Hirano, Koji Tanioka, Shunichi Yokoyama, Shin-ichi Akiyama and Jun-ichi Kuratsu
Object. Thymidine phosphorylase (TP) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are known angiogenic factors; however, there are few reports in which the relationship between these two factors is addressed. The authors compared expression patterns of TP and VEGF and investigated their role in the angiogenesis of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM).
Methods. Surgical specimens from 41 cases of GBM were immunohistochemically stained for TP, VEGF, CD68 (a macrophage marker), and CD31 (an endothelial cell marker). Both TP labeling indices and VEGF immunoreactivity displayed significant correlations with vascular density. Although VEGF was diffusely distributed in the tumor, TP was strongly expressed around blood vessels and in vascular proliferation. Double labeling for TP and CD68 in 10 cases indicated that cells that reacted strongly positive for TP were almost always macrophages, and only small numbers of CD68-negative cells weakly expressed TP.
The TP messenger (m)RNA expression was investigated using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in six GBMs. All six specimens expressed TP mRNA. In addition, TP mRNA was detected in two of three groups of cultured GBM cells derived from surgical specimens. Macrophages, the production of which was induced from two volunteers' peripheral blood monocytes by applying macrophage colony-stimulating factor, also expressed TP mRNA. The glioma cell lines U251MG and U87MG, which barely express TP mRNA under normal conditions, expressed TP mRNA in response to interferon-β stimulation or while in an anoxic condition.
Conclusions. Although it is feasible that GBM cells can express TP depending on their growing conditions, the majority of TP-expressing cells present in GBMs appear to be infiltrating macrophages. Coexistence of VEGF and TP may indicate a synergistic upregulation for angiogenesis because VEGF exerts a chemotactic activity on macrophages that express TP.
Hirofumi Hirano, Kazuho Hirahara, Tetsuhiko Asakura, Tetsuro Shimozuru, Koki Kadota, Shizuya Kasamo, Masaru Shimohonji, Kanetaka Kimotsuki and Masamichi Goto
✓ A case is reported of hydrocephalus due to overproduction of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) caused by villous hypertrophy of the choroid plexus in the lateral ventricles. A 7-year-old girl with mental retardation developed gait disturbance; hydrocephalus and a Dandy-Walker cyst were detected on computerized tomography. She was initially treated with a ventriculoperitoneal shunt; however, shunting failed to control the hydrocephalus. The excessive outflow of CSF suggested choroid plexus abnormality, and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging revealed enlargement of the choroid plexus in both lateral ventricles. The patient was therefore diagnosed as having hydrocephalus induced by overproduction of CSF, which was controlled by resection of the choroid plexus. Histological examination showed the structure typical of normal choroid plexus. This is a rare case of villous hypertrophy of the choroid plexus in which MR imaging assisted in the diagnosis.
Kenji Tada, Shoji Shiraishi, Takanori Kamiryo, Hideo Nakamura, Hirofumi Hirano, Jun-Ichi Kuratsu, Masato Kochi, Hideyuki Saya and Yukitaka Ushio
Object. The most frequent genetic abnormality in human malignant gliomas is loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on chromosome 10. Candidate genes on chromosome 10 that are associated with the prognosis of patients with anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) and glioblastoma (GBM) were evaluated.
Methods. The authors used 12 fluorescent microsatellite markers on both arms of chromosome 10 to study LOH in 108 primary astrocytic tumors. The LOH on chromosome 10 was observed in 11 (32%) of 34 AAs and 34 (56%) of 61 GBMs. No LOH was detected in 13 low-grade gliomas. Loss of heterozygosity was not detected in any AA in the seven patients younger than 35 years, but it was discovered in 41% of the patients older than 35 years. The prognostic significance of LOH at each locus was evaluated in 89 patients older than 15 years; 33 (37%) had supratentorial AAs and 56 (63%) had supratentorial GBMs. The Cox proportional hazards model, adjusted for patient age at surgery, the preoperative Karnofsky Performance Scale score, and the extent of surgical resection revealed that LOH on marker D10S209 near the FGFR2 and DMBT1 genes was significantly associated with shorter survival in patients with AA. The LOH on markers D10S215 and D10S541, which contain the PTEN/MMAC1 gene between them, was significantly associated with shorter survival in patients with GBM.
Conclusions. In the present study it is found that LOH on chromosome 10 is an age-dependent event for patients with AAs and that LOH on marker D10S209 near the FGFR2 and DMBT1 loci is a significantly unfavorable prognostic factor. It is also reported that LOH on the PTEN/MMAC1 gene is a significantly unfavorable prognostic factor in patients with GBM.
Mika Habu, Hiroshi Tokimura, Hirofumi Hirano, Soichiro Yasuda, Yasushi Nagatomo, Yoshiyasu Iwai, Jun Kawagishi, Koshi Tatewaki, Shunji Yunoue, Francia Campos, Yasuyuki Kinoshita, Akira Shimatsu, Akira Teramoto and Kazunori Arita
With advancement of cancer treatment and development of neuroimaging techniques, contemporary clinical pictures of pituitary metastases (PMs) must have changed from past reports. The goal of this paper was to elucidate the clinical features of PMs and current clinical practice related to those lesions. In this retrospective study, questionnaires were sent to 87 physicians who had treated PMs in Japan.
Between 1995 and 2010, 201 patients with PMs were treated by the participating physicians. The diagnosis of PM was histologically verified in 69 patients (34.3%). In the other 132 patients (65.7%), the PM was diagnosed by their physicians based on neuroimaging findings and clinical courses. The most frequent primary tumor was lung (36.8%), followed by breast (22.9%) and kidney (7.0%) cancer. The average interval between diagnosis of primary cancer and detection of PM was 2.8 ± 3.9 (SD) years. Major symptoms at diagnosis were visual disturbance in 30.3%, diabetes insipidus in 27.4%, fatigue in 25.4%, headache in 20.4%, and double vision in 17.4%. Major neuroimaging features were mass lesion in the pituitary stalk (63.3%), constriction of tumor at the diaphragmatic hiatus (44.7%), hypothalamic mass lesion (17.4%), and hyperintensity in the optic tract (11.4%). Surgical treatment was performed in 26.9% of patients, and 74.6% had radiation therapy; 80.0% of patients who underwent radiotherapy had stereotactic radiotherapy. The median survival time was 12.9 months in total. Contributing factors for good prognosis calculated by Cox proportional hazard analysis were younger age, late metastasis to the pituitary gland, smaller PM size, and radiation therapy. The Kaplan-Meier survival was significantly better in patients with breast cancer and renal cell cancer than in those with lung cancer.
At the time of this writing, approximately 60% (120/201) of PMs had been treated by stereotactic radiation therapy in Japan. The median survival time was much longer than that reported in past series. To confirm the changes of clinical features and medical practice, a prospective and population-based survey is mandatory.
Hiroshi Hosoyama, Kazumi Matsuda, Tadahiro Mihara, Naotaka Usui, Koichi Baba, Yushi Inoue, Takayasu Tottori, Toshiaki Otsubo, Yumi Kashida, Koji Iida, Hirofumi Hirano, Ryosuke Hanaya and Kazunori Arita
The aim of this study was to investigate the treatment outcomes and social engagement of patients who had undergone pediatric epilepsy surgery more than 10 years earlier.
Between 1983 and 2005, 110 patients younger than 16 years underwent epilepsy surgery at the National Epilepsy Center, Shizuoka Institute of Epilepsy and Neurological Disorders. The authors sent a questionnaire to 103 patients who had undergone follow-up for more than 10 years after surgery; 85 patients (82.5%) responded. The survey contained 4 categories: seizure outcome, use of antiepileptic drugs, social participation, and general satisfaction with the surgical treatment (resection of the epileptic focus, including 4 hemispherectomies). The mean patient age at the time of surgery was 9.8 ± 4.2 (SD) years, and the mean duration of postoperative follow-up was 15.4 ± 5.0 years. Of the 85 patients, 79 (92.9%) presented with a lesional pathology, such as medial temporal sclerosis, developmental/neoplastic lesions, focal cortical dysplasia, and gliosis in a single lobe.
For 65 of the 85 responders (76.5%), the outcome was recorded as Engel Class I (including 15 [93.8%] of 16 patients with medial temporal sclerosis, 20 [80.0%] of 25 with developmental/neoplastic lesions, and 27 [73.0%] of 37 with focal cortical dysplasia). Of these, 29 (44.6%) were not taking antiepileptic drugs at the time of our survey, 29 (44.6%) held full-time jobs, and 33 of 59 patients (55.9%) eligible to drive had a driver's license. Among 73 patients who reported their degree of satisfaction, 58 (79.5%) were very satisfied with the treatment outcome.
The seizure outcome in patients who underwent resective surgery in childhood and underwent followup for more than 10 years was good. Of 85 respondents, 65 (76.5%) were classified in Engel Class I. The degree of social engagement was relatively high, and the satisfaction level with the treatment outcome was also high. From the perspective of seizure control and social adaptation, resective surgery yielded longitudinal benefits in children with intractable epilepsy, especially those with a lesional pathology in a single lobe.