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Eduardo Vieira, Igor V. Faquini, Jose L. Silva Jr., Maria F. L. Griz, Auricélio B. Cezar Jr., Nivaldo S. Almeida and Hildo R. C. Azevedo-Filho

Infectious intracranial aneurysms (IIAs) represent 2%–6% of all intracranial aneurysms and, classically, have been associated with bacterial or fungal agents. The authors report the case of a 42-year-old woman who presented with a typical history of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) showed an aneurysmal dilatation on the frontal M2 segment of the left middle cerebral artery (MCA). The patient was treated surgically, and multiple cysts were found in the left carotid and sylvian cisterns, associated with a dense inflammatory exudate that involved the MCA. The cysts were removed, and a fusiform aneurysmal dilatation was identified. The lesion was not amenable to direct clipping, so the authors wrapped it. Histopathological analysis of the removed cysts revealed the typical pattern of subarachnoid neurocysticercosis. The patient received cysticidal therapy with albendazole and corticosteroids, and she recovered uneventfully. Follow-up DSA performed 6 months after surgery showed complete resolution of the aneurysm. The authors performed a review of the literature and believe that there is sufficient evidence to affirm that the subarachnoid form of neurocysticercosis may lead to the development of an IIA and that Taenia solium should be listed among the possible etiological agents of IIAs, along with bacterial and fungal agents.

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Eduardo Vieira, Thiago C. Guimarães, Igor V. Faquini, Jose L. Silva Jr., Tammy Saboia, Rodrigo V. C. L. Andrade, Thaís L. Gemir, Valesca C. Neri, Nivaldo S. Almeida and Hildo R. C. Azevedo-Filho

OBJECTIVE

Decompressive craniectomy (DC) is a widely used procedure in neurosurgery; however, few studies focus on the best surgical technique for the procedure. The authors’ objective was to conduct a prospective randomized controlled trial comparing 2 techniques for performing DC: with watertight duraplasty and without watertight duraplasty (rapid-closure DC).

METHODS

The study population comprised patients ranging in age from 18 to 60 years who were admitted to the Neurotrauma Service of the Hospital da Restauração with a clinical indication for unilateral decompressive craniectomy. Patients were randomized by numbered envelopes into 2 groups: with watertight duraplasty (control group) and without watertight duraplasty (test group). After unilateral DC was completed, watertight duraplasty was performed in the control group, while in the test group, no watertight duraplasty was performed and the exposed parenchyma was covered with Surgicel and the remaining dura mater. Patients were then monitored daily from the date of surgery until hospital discharge or death. The primary end point was the incidence of surgical complications (CSF leak, wound infection, brain abscess, or subgaleal fluid collections). The following were analyzed as secondary end points: clinical outcome (analyzed using the Glasgow Outcome Scale [GOS]), surgical time, and hospital costs.

RESULTS

Fifty-eight patients were enrolled, 29 in each group. Three patients were excluded, leaving 27 in the test group and 28 in the control group. There were no significant differences between groups regarding age, Glasgow Coma Scale score at the time of surgery, GOS score, and number of postoperative follow-up days. There were 9 surgical complications (5 in the control group and 4 in the test group), with no significant differences between the groups. The mean surgical time in the control group was 132 minutes, while in the test group the average surgical time was 101 minutes, a difference of 31 minutes (p = 0.001). The mean reduction in total cost was $420.00 USD (a 23.4% reduction) per procedure in the test group.

CONCLUSIONS

Rapid-closure DC without watertight duraplasty is a safe procedure. It is not associated with a higher incidence of surgical complications (CSF leak, wound infection, brain abscess, or subgaleal fluid collections), and it decreased surgical time by 31 minutes on average. There was also a hospital cost reduction of $420.00 USD (23.4% reduction) per procedure.

Clinical trial registration no.: NCT02594137 (clinicaltrials.gov)