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Erratum. Predicting hearing outcomes before primary radiosurgery for vestibular schwannomas

Hideyuki Kano

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Response to Editorials

Arteriovenous malformations and radiosurgery

Douglas Kondziolka, Hideyuki Kano, and L. Dade Lunsford

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Editorial

Trigeminal neuralgia

Kim J. Burchiel

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Editorial: Management of hemangioblastomas in patients with von Hippel–Lindau disease: stereotactic radiosurgery compared to surgical excision

Edward H. Oldfield

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Editorial: Stereotactic radiosurgery for Spetzler-Martin Grade III arteriovenous malformations

Mohamed Samy Elhammady and Roberto C. Heros

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Long-term outcomes of pediatric arteriovenous malformations: the 30-year Pittsburgh experience

Michael M. McDowell, Nitin Agarwal, Gordon Mao, Stephen Johnson, Hideyuki Kano, L. Dade Lunsford, and Stephanie Greene

OBJECTIVE

The study of pediatric arteriovenous malformations (pAVMs) is complicated by the rarity of the entity. Treatment choice has often been affected by the availability of different modalities and the experience of the providers present. The University of Pittsburgh experience of multimodality treatment of pAVMs is presented.

METHODS

The authors conducted a retrospective cohort study examining 212 patients with pAVM presenting to the University of Pittsburgh between 1988 and 2018, during which patients had access to surgical, endovascular, and radiosurgical options. Univariate analysis was performed comparing good and poor outcomes. A poor outcome was defined as a modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score of ≥ 3. Multivariate analysis via logistic regression was performed on appropriate variables with a p value of ≤ 0.2. Seventy-five percent of the cohort had at least 3 years of follow-up.

RESULTS

Five patients (2.4%) did not receive any intervention, 131 (61.8%) had GKRS alone, 14 (6.6%) had craniotomies alone, and 2 (0.9%) had embolization alone. Twenty-two (10.4%) had embolization and Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS); 20 (9.4%) had craniotomies and GKRS; 8 (3.8%) had embolization and craniotomies; and 10 (4.7%) had embolization, craniotomies, and GKRS. Thirty-one patients (14.6%) were found to have poor outcome on follow-up. The multivariate analysis performed in patients with poor outcomes was notable for associations with no treatment (OR 18.9, p = 0.02), hemorrhage requiring craniotomy for decompression alone (OR 6, p = 0.03), preoperative mRS score (OR 2.1, p = 0.004), and Spetzler-Martin score (OR 1.8, p = 0.0005). The mean follow-up was 79.7 ± 62.1 months. The confirmed radiographic obliteration rate was 79.4% and there were 5 recurrences found on average 9.5 years after treatment.

CONCLUSIONS

High rates of long-term functional independence (mRS score of ≤ 2) can be achieved with comprehensive multimodality treatment of pAVMs. At this center there was no difference in outcome based on treatment choice when accounting for factors such as Spetzler-Martin grade and presenting morbidity. Recurrences are rare but frequently occur years after treatment, emphasizing the need for long-term screening after obliteration.

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The evolution of a clinical registry during 25 years of experience with Gamma Knife radiosurgery in Pittsburgh

Oren Berkowitz, Douglas Kondziolka, David Bissonette, Ajay Niranjan, Hideyuki Kano, and L. Dade Lunsford

Object

The first North American 201 cobalt-60 source Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) device was introduced at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center in 1987. The introduction of this innovative and largely untested surgical procedure prompted the desire to study patient outcomes and evaluate the effectiveness of this technique. The parallel advances in computer software and database technology led to the development of a registry to track patient outcomes at this center. The purpose of this study was to describe the registry's evolution and to evaluate its usefulness.

Methods

A team was created to develop a software database and tracking system to organize and retain information on the usage of GKS. All patients undergoing GKS were systematically entered into this database by a clinician familiar with the technology and the clinical indications. Information included patient demographics and diagnosis as well as the anatomical site of the target and details of the procedure.

Results

There are currently 11,738 patients in the database, which began to be used in August 1987. The University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has pioneered the evaluation and publication of the GKS technique and outcomes. Data derived from this computer database have facilitated the publication of more than 400 peer-reviewed manuscripts, more than 200 book chapters, 8 books, and more than 300 published abstracts and scientific presentations. The use of GKS has become a well-established surgical technique that has been performed more than 700,000 times around the world.

Conclusions

The development of a patient registry to track and analyze the use of GKS has given investigators the ability to study patient procedures and outcomes. The future of clinical medical research will rely on the ability of clinical centers to store and to share information.

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Stereotactic radiosurgery for trigeminal schwannoma: tumor control and functional preservation

Clinical article

Hideyuki Kano, Ajay Niranjan, Douglas Kondziolka, John C. Flickinger, and L. Dade Lunsford

Object

To evaluate outcome predictors after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) in patients with trigeminal schwannomas, the authors compared tumor control, functional preservation, and complications with tumor grade, tumor volume, patient age, and tumor imaging characteristics.

Methods

The records of 33 consecutive patients with trigeminal schwannoma treated via Gamma Knife surgery were retrospectively reviewed. The median patient age was 49.5 years (range 15.1–82.5 years). Eleven patients had undergone prior tumor resection. Two patients had neurofibromatosis Type 2. Lesions were classified as root type (6 tumors), ganglion type (17 tumors), and dumbbell type (10 tumors) based on their location. The median radiosurgery target volume was 4.2 cm3 (range 0.5–18.0 cm3), and the median dose to the tumor margin was 15.0 Gy (range 12–20 Gy).

Results

At an average of 6 years (range 7.2–147.9 months), the rate of progression-free survival (PFS) at 1, 5, and 10 years after SRS was 97.0, 82.0, and 82.0%, respectively. Factors associated with improved PFS included female sex, smaller tumor volume, and a root or ganglion tumor type. Neurological symptoms or signs improved in 11 (33.3%) of 33 patients and were unchanged in 19 (57.6%). Three patients (9.1%) had symptomatic disease progression. Patients who had not undergone a prior tumor resection were significantly more likely to show improvement in neurological symptoms or signs.

Conclusions

Stereotactic radiosurgery is an effective and minimally invasive management option in patients with residual or newly diagnosed trigeminal schwannomas. Predictors of a better treatment response included female sex, smaller tumor volume, root or ganglion tumor type, and the application of SRS as the primary treatment.

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Editorial

Relationship between tinnitus and surgical options for vestibular schwannomas

Douglas Kondziolka and Hideyuki Kano

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Does radiosurgery have a role in the management of oligodendrogliomas?

Clinical article

Hideyuki Kano, Ajay Niranjan, Aftab Khan, John C. Flickinger, Douglas Kondziolka, Frank Lieberman, and L. Dade Lunsford

Object

In this study the authors evaluated the role of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) in the management of progressive or newly diagnosed small-volume oligodendrogliomas. Tumor control, survival, and complications were assessed in patients with oligodendroglioma who underwent Gamma Knife radiosurgery as a primary or adjuvant procedure.

Methods

The authors retrospectively reviewed 30 patients with oligodendroglioma (12 Grade II and 18 Grade III) who underwent SRS between 1992 and June 2006 at the University of Pittsburgh. The median patient age was 43.2 years (range 10.8–75.4 years). Twenty-four patients had previously undergone resection of the tumor, whereas tumors in 6 were diagnosed based on biopsy findings. The SRS was performed in 25 patients who had imaging-defined tumor progression despite prior fractionated radiation (22 patients) and/or chemotherapy (20 patients). The median target volume was 15.4 cm3 (range 0.07–48.7 cm3) and the median margin dose was 14.5 Gy (range 11–20 Gy).

Results

At an average of 39.2 months of follow-up (range 12–133 months), 17 patients were dead and 13 were living. The overall survival rates from diagnosis to 5 and 10 years were 90.9 and 68.2%, respectively, for Grade II and 52.1% at 5 years and 26.1% at 10 years for Grade III. Factors associated with an improved progression-free survival included lower tumor grade and smaller tumor volume. In 13 patients who had loss of heterozygosity testing, patients with 1p19q loss of heterozygosity had a significantly improved survival after diagnosis (p = 0.04).

Conclusions

The SRS modality is a minimally invasive additional option for patients with residual or recurrent oligodendrogliomas. It may also be considered as an alternative to initial resection in small-volume tumors located in the cortical brain region.