Ryuichi Hirayama, Manabu Kinoshita, Hideyuki Arita, Naoki Kagawa, Haruhiko Kishima, Naoya Hashimoto, Yasunori Fujimoto and Toshiki Yoshimine
In the present study the authors aimed to determine preferred locations of meningiomas by avoiding descriptive analysis and instead using voxel-based lesion mapping and 3D image-rendering techniques.
Magnetic resonance images obtained in 248 treatment-naïve meningioma patients with 260 lesions were retrospectively and consecutively collected. All images were registered to a 1-mm isotropic, high-resolution, T1-weighted brain atlas provided by the Montreal Neurological Institute (the MNI152), and a lesion frequency map was created, followed by 3D volume rendering to visualize the preferred locations of meningiomas in 3D.
The 3D lesion frequency map clearly showed that skull base structures such as parasellar, sphenoid wing, and petroclival regions were commonly affected by the tumor. The middle one-third of the superior sagittal sinus was most commonly affected in parasagittal tumors. Substantial lesion accumulation was observed around the leptomeninges covering the central sulcus and the sylvian fissure, with very few lesions observed at the frontal, parietal, and occipital convexities.
Using an objective visualization method, meningiomas were shown to be located around the middle third of the superior sagittal sinus, the perisylvian convexity, and the skull base. These observations, which are in line with previous descriptive analyses, justify further use of voxel-based lesion mapping techniques to help understand the biological nature of this disease.
Manabu Kinoshita, Hideyuki Arita, Yoshiko Okita, Naoki Kagawa, Haruhiko Kishima, Naoya Hashimoto, Hisashi Tanaka, Yoshiyuki Watanabe, Eku Shimosegawa, Jun Hatazawa, Yasunori Fujimoto and Toshiki Yoshimine
Diffusion MRI is attracting increasing interest for tissue characterization of gliomas, especially after the introduction of antiangiogenic therapy to treat malignant gliomas. The goal of the current study is to elucidate the actual magnitude of the correlation between diffusion MRI and cell density within the tissue. The obtained results were further extended and compared with metabolic imaging with 11C-methionine (MET) PET.
Ninety-eight tissue samples from 37 patients were stereotactically obtained via an intraoperative neuronavigation system. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and MET PET were performed as routine presurgical imaging studies for these patients. DTI was converted into fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps, and MET PET images were registered to Gd-administered T1-weighted images that were used for navigation. Metrics of FA, ADC, and tumor-to-normal tissue ratio of MET PET along with relative values of FA (rFA) and ADC (rADC) compared with normal-appearing white matter were correlated with cell density of the stereotactically obtained tissues.
rADC was significantly lower in lesions obtained from Gd-enhancing lesions than from nonenhancing lesions. Although rADC showed a moderate but statistically significant negative correlation with cell density (p = 0.010), MET PET showed a superb positive correlation with cell density (p < 0.0001). On the other hand, rFA showed little correlation with cell density.
The presented data validated the use of rADC for estimating the treatment response of gliomas but also caution against overestimating its limited accuracy compared with MET PET.
Takero Hirata, Manabu Kinoshita, Keisuke Tamari, Yuji Seo, Osamu Suzuki, Nobuhide Wakai, Takamune Achiha, Toru Umehara, Hideyuki Arita, Naoki Kagawa, Yonehiro Kanemura, Eku Shimosegawa, Naoya Hashimoto, Jun Hatazawa, Haruhiko Kishima, Teruki Teshima and Kazuhiko Ogawa
It is important to correctly and precisely define the target volume for radiotherapy (RT) of malignant glioma. 11C-methionine (MET) positron emission tomography (PET) holds promise for detecting areas of glioma cell infiltration: the authors’ previous research showed that the magnitude of disruption of MET and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake correlation (decoupling score [DS]) precisely reflects glioma cell invasion. The purpose of the present study was to analyze volumetric and geometrical properties of RT target delineation based on DS and compare them with those based on MRI.
Twenty-five patients with a diagnosis of malignant glioma were included in this study. Three target volumes were compared: 1) contrast-enhancing core lesions identified by contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images (T1Gd), 2) high-intensity lesions on T2-weighted images, and 3) lesions showing high DS (DS ≥ 3; hDS). The geometrical differences of these target volumes were assessed by calculating the probabilities of overlap and one encompassing the other. The correlation of geometrical features of RT planning and recurrence patterns was further analyzed.
The analysis revealed that T1Gd with a 2.0-cm margin was able to cover the entire high DS area only in 6 (24%) patients, which indicates that microscopic invasion of glioma cells often extended more than 2.0 cm beyond a Gd-enhanced core lesion. Insufficient coverage of high DS regions with RT target volumes was suggested to be a risk for out-of-field recurrence. Higher coverage of hDS by T1Gd with a 2-cm margin (i.e., higher values of “[T1Gd + 2 cm]/hDS”) had a trend to positively impact overall and progression-free survival. Cox regression analysis demonstrated that low coverage of hDS by T1Gd with a 2-cm margin was predictive of disease recurrence outside the Gd-enhanced core lesion, indicative of out-of-field reoccurrence.
The findings of this study indicate that MRI is inadequate for target delineation for RT in malignant glioma treatment. Expanding the treated margins substantially beyond the MRI-based target volume may reduce the risk of undertreatment, but it may also result in unnecessary irradiation of uninvolved regions. As MET/FDG PET-DS seems to provide more accurate information for target delineation than MRI in malignant glioma treatment, this method should be further evaluated on a larger scale.