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  • Author or Editor: Hidenao Fukuyama x
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Hiroki Toda, Nobukatsu Sawamoto, Takashi Hanakawa, Hidemoto Saiki, Sadayuki Matsumoto, Ryosuke Okumura, Masatsune Ishikawa, Hidenao Fukuyama and Nobuo Hashimoto

Object

Accurate localization of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is important for proper placement of the electrodes in deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery for patients with advanced Parkinson disease. The authors evaluated the accuracy of our modified composite targeting method and the value of using high-field MR imaging for targeting the STN.

Methods

Thirteen patients with advanced Parkinson disease underwent bilateral STN DBS based on 3-T MR imaging, and 13 patients underwent surgery based on 1.5-T MR imaging. By sequentially referring to the postmammillary commissure, the red nucleus, the mammillothalamic tract, and the STN, the modified composite targeting method determined the stereotactic coordinates for targeting the STN. The accuracy and efficacy of the composite targeting method and 3-T MR imaging were evaluated by using the intraoperative microelectrode recording, the postoperative imaging study, and the postoperative clinical improvement.

Results

The landmark structures for targeting the STN were visualized clearly with 3-T MR imaging. The mean (± SD) path length through the STN of the central track was 4.9 ± 1.1 mm in the 3-T group and 3.1 ± 2.0 mm in the 1.5-T group (p < 0.001). Twenty-one (81%) of 26 electrodes were placed in the central track in the 3-T group, whereas 8 (31%) of 26 electrodes were placed in the central track in the 1.5-T group (p = 0.006). The rest of the electrodes were placed in the noncentral optimum track for alleviating parkinsonian motor symptoms. The mean Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale motor part score during off period was reduced by 53% in the 3-T group and by 41% in the 1.5-T group (p = 0.14). The mean reductions of levodopa equivalent daily doses were 48.6% in the 3-T group and 43.7% in the 1.5-T group (p = 0.61).

Conclusions

The use of the modified composite targeting method referring to the multiple landmarks with 3-T MR imaging offers reliable and clinically effective target for STN DBS surgery.

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Nobuhiro Mikuni, Tsutomu Okada, Namiko Nishida, Junya Taki, Rei Enatsu, Akio Ikeda, Yukio Miki, Takashi Hanakawa, Hidenao Fukuyama and Nobuo Hashimoto

Object

The utility of subcortical electrical stimulation and fiber tracking were compared to estimate the pyramidal tract near brain tumors.

Methods

In 22 patients, the white matter at the bottom of a tumor was electrically stimulated near the fiber tracking of the pyramidal tract shown on a neuronavigation system. The distance between the center of the fiber tracking of these tracts and the stimulated region was measured and defined as the motor evoked potential (MEP) response. The MEP was consistently produced at distances less than 7 mm (six patients), but was consistently absent at distances more than 13 mm (seven patients) from the fiber tracking of the pyramidal tracts. In the nine patients in whom the distance was between 8 and 12 mm, an MEP was elicited when stimulation was applied at the level of the corona radiata. Motor function was preserved or even improved with appropriate tumor resection in all patients.

Conclusions

The anteroposteriorly running superior longitudinal fasciculus could cause complications in the fiber tracking of upper-extremity motor pathways at the level of the corona radiata. During resection of tumors located near the corona radiata, subcortical electrical stimulation should be applied at some distance from the pyramidal tract, as estimated by fiber tracking.

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Ken-Ichiro Kikuta, Yasushi Takagi, Kazuhiko Nozaki, Takashi Hanakawa, Tsutomu Okada, Nobuhro Mikuni, Yukio Miki, Yasutaka Fushimi, Akira Yamamoto, Keisuke Yamada, Hidenao Fukuyama and Nobuo Hashimoto

Object. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of asymptomatic microbleeds (MBs) in patients with moyamoya disease (MMD) by using a 3-tesla magnetic resonance (MR) imaging unit.

Methods. Data on 63 patients hospitalized with MMD between 1999 and 2004 were retrospectively examined to determine the incidence of asymptomatic MBs. Gradient-echo T2*-weighted MR imaging studies obtained using 3- and 1.5-tesla units were available in 25 patients. These patients consisted of five men and 20 women, ranging in age from 17 to 66 years (mean age 41 ± 14 years). Ischemic MMD was diagnosed in 18 patients, and hemorrhagic MMD in seven. The incidence of MBs was also evaluated using the same 3-tesla MR imaging unit in 34 healthy volunteers including seven men and 27 women, ranging in age from 18 to 71 years (mean age 33 ± 12 years). Using the 3-tesla MR unit, asymptomatic MBs were demonstrated in 11 patients (44%); they were detected in seven patients (28%) by using the 1.5-tesla unit. In the 3-tesla MR studies in healthy individuals, MBs were found in two patients (5.8%). Based on 3-tesla MR studies, the incidence of MBs was significantly higher in patients with MMD compared with that in healthy individuals. Asymptomatic MBs were demonstrated in eight (44%) of 18 patients with ischemic MMD and three (43%) of seven patients with hemorrhagic MMD.

Conclusions. Microbleeds are significantly more common in patients with MMD than in healthy individuals regardless of the disease type. The evaluation of MBs with T2*-weighted 3-tesla MR imaging might contribute to the treatment of MMD.

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Nobuhiro Mikuni, Tsutomu Okada, Rei Enatsu, Yukio Miki, Takashi Hanakawa, Shin-ichi Urayama, Kenichiro Kikuta, Jun A. Takahashi, Kazuhiko Nozaki, Hidenao Fukuyama and Nobuo Hashimoto

Object

The authors evaluated the clinical impact of combining functional neuronavigation with subcortical electrical stimulation to preserve motor function following the removal of brain tumors.

Methods

Forty patients underwent surgery for treatment of brain tumors located near pyramidal tracts that had been identified by fiber tracking. The distances between the electrically stimulated white matter and the pyramidal tracts were measured intraoperatively with tractography-integrated functional neuronavigation, and correlated with subcortical motor evoked potentials (MEPs) and clinical symptoms during and after resection of the tumors.

Motor function was preserved after appropriate tumor resection in all cases. In 18 of 20 patients, MEPs were elicited from the subcortex within 1 cm of the pyramidal tracts as measured using intraoperative neuronavigation. During resection, improvement of motor weakness was observed in two patients, whereas transient mild motor weakness occurred in two other patients. In 20 patients, the distances between the stimulated subcortex and the estimated pyramidal tracts were more than 1 cm, and MEPs were detected in only three of these patients following stimulation.

Conclusions

Intraoperative functional neuronavigation and subcortical electrical stimulation are complementary techniques that may facilitate the preservation of pyramidal tracts around 1 cm of resected tumors.