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Hidemitsu Sakai, Hiroshi Takagi, Hirotoshi Ohtaka, Takamaru Tanabe, Takashi Ohwada, and Kenzoh Yada

✓ The authors report the cases of 37 patients encountered during the past 4 years who exhibited acute extradural hematoma but were initially treated conservatively because no or only small hematomas were observed on admission. The frequency of hematoma enlargement, hematoma size, and changes in the level of consciousness and intracranial pressure (ICP) were examined in these patients. The hematomas enlarged in 24 (64.9%) of the 37 patients, and attained a maximum thickness of 25 mm or greater in 19 patients (51.3%). The level of consciousness could be closely observed during enlargement of the hematomas in 13 patients: the level remained unchanged in eight, deteriorated in two, and improved in three, indicating relative stability in the state of consciousness despite the marked changes in hematoma size. The patients whose hematoma enlarged after the initial examination included three who underwent initial CT examination 5 hours after the injury. In five patients enlargement of extradural hematomas was observed unexpectedly during conservative treatment under ICP monitoring.

The ICP also remained stable in three patients until the follow-up examination, but showed a rapid increase in two after a period of stability. However, there was no difference in the final size of the hematomas between the patients showing an increase in ICP and those who did not. These findings suggest that extradural hematomas enlarge progressively at rates varying with the condition of the source of hemorrhage. Moreover, a period of stability in the level of consciousness, such as the lucid interval seen in patients with extradural hematoma, is considered to be a period during which compensatory mechanisms can maintain the stability of the intracranial condition during progressive enlargement of the hematoma.

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Shoichi Tani, Hirotoshi Imamura, Katsunori Asai, Kampei Shimizu, Hidemitsu Adachi, So Tokunaga, Takayuki Funatsu, Keita Suzuki, Hiromasa Adachi, Shuhei Kawabata, Yuichi Matsui, Natsuhi Sasaki, Ryo Akiyama, Kazufumi Horiuchi, Chiaki Sakai, and Nobuyuki Sakai


The authors sought to compare methods of measurement for venous phase delay (VPD) or mean stump pressure (MSTP) to rank their potential to predict ischemic tolerance during balloon test occlusion in the internal carotid artery, exploring a more correlative and convenient way to measure cerebral blood flow (CBF) that could be utilized even in the acute phase or in institutions not adequately equipped to measure CBF during the test.


X-ray angiography perfusion analysis using diagnostic digital subtraction angiography (DSA) equipment enables 1-step examination (without any room-to-room transfer of patients) to measure CBF, VPD, and MSTP completely simultaneously, which has not been accomplished by any previous perfusion studies.


This analysis was applied to 17 patients and resulted in successful estimation of all 3 parameters in each case. The average VPD of several cortical veins had a strong correlation with relative CBF (rCBF) between bilateral hemispheres with a correlation coefficient of 0.89443, a correlation as strong as that (0.90357) of the “approximate VPD,” which is interpreted based on the trend line of the scatterplot of the time to peak contrast opacification in cortical veins and their spatial positioning from the median sagittal plane. MSTP and classic visual determination of VPD have weaker correlation coefficients with rCBF (0.56119 and 0.70048, respectively). Overall, subjective visual determination in combination with the calculation of the trend line to estimate VPD provided a considerably strong correlation with rCBF (R = 0.86660) without any dedicated software or hardware.


VPD has a stronger correlation with rCBF than MSTP. rCBF could be successfully predicted on common DSA equipment, even by visual determination without expensive software, if the trend line is adopted for processing to estimate VPD.