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M. Yashar S. Kalani, Aristotelis S. Filippidis, Maziyar A. Kalani, Nader Sanai, David Brachman, Heyoung L. McBride, Andrew G. Shetter and Kris A. Smith

Object

Resection and whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) have classically been the standard treatment for a single metastasis to the brain. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) as an alternative to WBRT in patients who had undergone resection and to evaluate patient survival and local tumor control.

Methods

The authors retrospectively reviewed the charts of 150 patients treated with a combination of stereotactic radiosurgery and resection of a cranial metastasis at their institution between April 1997 and September 2009. Patients who had multiple lesions or underwent both WBRT and GKS were excluded, as were patients for whom survival data beyond the initial treatment were not available. Clinical and imaging follow-up was assessed using notes from clinic visits and MR imaging studies when available. Follow-up data beyond the initial treatment and survival data were available for 68 patients.

Results

The study included 37 women (54.4%) and 31 men (45.6%) (mean age 60 years, range 28–89 years). In 45 patients (66.2%) there was systemic control of the primary tumor when the cranial metastasis was identified. The median duration between resection and radiosurgery was 15.5 days. The median volume of the treated cavity was 10.35 cm3 (range 0.9–45.4 cm3), and the median dose to the cavity margin was 15 Gy (range 14–30 Gy), delivered to the 50% isodose line (range 50%–76% isodose line). The patients' median preradiosurgery Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS) score was 90 (range 40–100). During the follow-up period we identified 27 patients (39.7%) with recurrent tumor located either local or distant to the site of treatment. The median time from primary treatment of metastasis to recurrence was 10.6 months. The patients' median length of survival (interval between first treatment of cerebral metastasis and last follow-up) was 13.2 months. For the patient who died during follow-up, the median time from diagnosis of cerebral metastasis to death was 11.5 months. The median duration of survival from diagnosis of the primary cancer to last follow-up was 30.2 months. Patients with a pretreatment KPS score ≥ 90 had a median survival time of 23.2 months, and patients with a pretreatment KPS score < 90 had a median survival time of 10 months (p < 0.008). Systemic control of disease at the time of metastasis was not predictive of increased survival duration, although it did tend to improve survival.

Conclusions

Although the debate about the ideal form of radiation treatment after resection continues, these findings indicate that GKS combined with surgery offers comparable survival duration and local tumor control to WBRT for patients with a diagnosis of a single metastasis.

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David A. Wilson, Al-Wala Awad, David Brachman, Stephen W. Coons, Heyoung McBride, Emad Youssef, Peter Nakaji, Andrew G. Shetter, Kris A. Smith, Robert F. Spetzler and Nader Sanai

Object

The optimal management of pineocytomas remains controversial. Although the value of complete microsurgical removal is well accepted, gross-total resection is not always feasible. Data regarding the role of postoperative adjuvant stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for residual disease is limited and conflicting. Here, the authors review the largest single-institution experience with multimodal pineocytoma management in an effort to quantify the utility of adjuvant radiosurgical treatment of residual disease.

Methods

The medical records and radiographic studies for all patients with histologically confirmed pineocytoma at the Barrow Neurological Institute between 1999 and 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical and radiographic data, including the volumetric extent of resection, were collected retrospectively, and Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to identify progression-free survival.

Results

Fourteen adults with newly diagnosed pineocytomas were surgically treated in the period from 1999 to 2011. The median clinical and radiographic follow-ups were 44 and 53 months, respectively. Twelve patients (86%) underwent microsurgical removal and 2 (14%) underwent endoscopic biopsy. Five patients (36%) had complete resections and 9 (64%) demonstrated residual disease. Three patients (21%) presented with radiographic recurrence at a median interval of 43 months after initial treatment (range 13–83 months). At the time of recurrence, the median preoperative tumor volume was 2.6 cm3. Adjuvant SRS was used to treat 3 subtotally resected tumors (33%) following initial presentation and 2 (66%) at the time of recurrence. Among patients with subtotally resected tumors, progression-free survival was significantly longer (p < 0.05) for those who did as compared with those who did not undergo adjuvant radiosurgery. To date, no patient who underwent adjuvant radiosurgery has demonstrated radiographic or clinical evidence of disease progression.

Conclusions

Microsurgical removal remains the definitive treatment for pineocytomas, yet residual disease can be effectively controlled using adjuvant SRS.

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Douglas A. Hardesty, Andrew B. Wolf, David G. Brachman, Heyoung L. McBride, Emad Youssef, Peter Nakaji, Randall W. Porter, Kris A. Smith, Robert F. Spetzler and Nader Sanai

Object

Patients with atypical meningioma often undergo gross-total resection (GTR) at initial presentation, but the role of adjuvant radiation therapy remains unclear. The increasing prevalence of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) in the modern neurosurgical era has led to the use of routine postoperative radiation therapy in the absence of evidence-based guidelines. This study sought to define the long-term recurrence rate of atypical meningiomas and identify the value of SRS in affecting outcome.

Methods

The authors identified 228 patients with microsurgically treated atypical meningiomas who underwent a total of 257 resections at the Barrow Neurological Institute over the last 20 years. Atypical meningiomas were diagnosed according to current WHO criteria. Clinical and radiographic data were collected retrospectively.

Results

Median clinical and radiographic follow-up was 52 months. Gross-total resection, defined as Simpson Grade I or II resection, was achieved in 149 patients (58%). The median proliferative index was 6.9% (range 0.4%–20.6%). Overall 51 patients (22%) demonstrated tumor recurrence at a median of 20.2 months postoperatively. Seventy-one patients (31%) underwent adjuvant radiation postoperatively, with 32 patients (14%) receiving adjuvant SRS and 39 patients (17%) receiving adjuvant intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). The recurrence rate for patients receiving SRS was 25% (8/32) and for IMRT was 18% (7/39), which was not significantly different from the overall group. Gross-total resection was predictive of progression-free survival (PFS; relative risk 0.255, p < 0.0001), but postoperative SRS was not associated with improved PFS in all patients or in only those with subtotal resections.

Conclusions

Atypical meningiomas are increasingly irradiated, even after complete or near-complete microsurgical resection. This analysis of the largest patient series to date suggests that close observation remains reasonable in the setting of aggressive microsurgical resection. Although postoperative adjuvant SRS did not significantly affect tumor recurrence rates in this experience, a larger cohort study with longer follow-up may reveal a therapeutic benefit in the future.

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Hideyuki Kano, Jason Sheehan, Penny K. Sneed, Heyoung L. McBride, Byron Young, Christopher Duma, David Mathieu, Zachary Seymour, Michael W. McDermott, Douglas Kondziolka, Aditya Iyer and L. Dade Lunsford

OBJECT

Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is a potentially important option for patients with skull base chondrosarcomas. The object of this study was to analyze the outcomes of SRS for chondrosarcoma patients who underwent this treatment as a part of multimodality management.

METHODS

Seven participating centers of the North American Gamma Knife Consortium (NAGKC) identified 46 patients who underwent SRS for skull base chondrosarcomas. Thirty-six patients had previously undergone tumor resections and 5 had been treated with fractionated radiation therapy (RT). The median tumor volume was 8.0 cm3 (range 0.9–28.2 cm3), and the median margin dose was 15 Gy (range 10.5–20 Gy). Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to calculate progression-free and overall survival rates.

RESULTS

At a median follow-up of 75 months after SRS, 8 patients were dead. The actuarial overall survival after SRS was 89% at 3 years, 86% at 5 years, and 76% at 10 years. Local tumor progression occurred in 10 patients. The rate of progression-free survival (PFS) after SRS was 88% at 3 years, 85% at 5 years, and 70% at 10 years. Prior RT was significantly associated with shorter PFS. Eight patients required salvage resection, and 3 patients (7%) developed adverse radiation effects. Cranial nerve deficits improved in 22 (56%) of the 39 patients who deficits before SRS. Clinical improvement after SRS was noted in patients with abducens nerve paralysis (61%), oculomotor nerve paralysis (50%), lower cranial nerve dysfunction (50%), optic neuropathy (43%), facial neuropathy (38%), trochlear nerve paralysis (33%), trigeminal neuropathy (12%), and hearing loss (10%).

CONCLUSIONS

Stereotactic radiosurgery for skull base chondrosarcomas is an important adjuvant option for the treatment of these rare tumors, as part of a team approach that includes initial surgical removal of symptomatic larger tumors.

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David G. Brachman, Emad Youssef, Christopher J. Dardis, Nader Sanai, Joseph M. Zabramski, Kris A. Smith, Andrew S. Little, Andrew G. Shetter, Theresa Thomas, Heyoung L. McBride, Stephen Sorensen, Robert F. Spetzler and Peter Nakaji

OBJECTIVE

Effective treatments for recurrent, previously irradiated intracranial meningiomas are limited, and resection alone is not usually curative. Thus, the authors studied the combination of maximum safe resection and adjuvant radiation using permanent intracranial brachytherapy (R+BT) in patients with recurrent, previously irradiated aggressive meningiomas.

METHODS

Patients with recurrent, previously irradiated meningiomas were treated between June 2013 and October 2016 in a prospective single-arm trial of R+BT. Cesium-131 (Cs-131) radiation sources were embedded in modular collagen carriers positioned in the operative bed on completion of resection. The Cox proportional hazards model with this treatment as a predictive term was used to model its effect on time to local tumor progression.

RESULTS

Nineteen patients (median age 64.5 years, range 50–78 years) with 20 recurrent, previously irradiated tumors were treated. The WHO grade at R+BT was I in 4 (20%), II in 14 (70%), and III in 2 (10%) cases. The median number of prior same-site radiation courses and same-site surgeries were 1 (range 1–3) and 2 (range 1–4), respectively; the median preoperative tumor volume was 11.3 cm3 (range 0.9–92.0 cm3). The median radiation dose from BT was 63 Gy (range 54–80 Gy). At a median radiographic follow-up of 15.4 months (range 0.03–47.5 months), local failure (within 1.5 cm of the implant bed) occurred in 2 cases (10%). The median treatment-site time to progression after R+BT has not been reached; that after the most recent prior therapy was 18.3 months (range 3.9–321.9 months; HR 0.17, p = 0.02, log-rank test). The median overall survival after R+BT was 26 months, with 9 patient deaths (47% of patients). Treatment was well tolerated; 2 patients required surgery for complications, and 2 experienced radiation necrosis, which was managed medically.

CONCLUSIONS

R+BT utilizing Cs-131 sources in modular carriers represents a potentially safe and effective treatment option for recurrent, previously irradiated aggressive meningiomas.

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Jason P. Sheehan, Shota Tanaka, Michael J. Link, Bruce E. Pollock, Douglas Kondziolka, David Mathieu, Christopher Duma, A. Byron Young, Anthony M. Kaufmann, Heyoung McBride, Peter A. Weisskopf, Zhiyuan Xu, Hideyuki Kano, Huai-che Yang and L. Dade Lunsford

Object

Glomus tumors are rare skull base neoplasms that frequently involve critical cerebrovascular structures and lower cranial nerves. Complete resection is often difficult and may increase cranial nerve deficits. Stereotactic radiosurgery has gained an increasing role in the management of glomus tumors. The authors of this study examine the outcomes after radiosurgery in a large, multicenter patient population.

Methods

Under the auspices of the North American Gamma Knife Consortium, 8 Gamma Knife surgery centers that treat glomus tumors combined their outcome data retrospectively. One hundred thirty-four patient procedures were included in the study (134 procedures in 132 patients, with each procedure being analyzed separately). Prior resection was performed in 51 patients, and prior fractionated external beam radiotherapy was performed in 6 patients. The patients' median age at the time of radiosurgery was 59 years. Forty percent had pulsatile tinnitus at the time of radiosurgery. The median dose to the tumor margin was 15 Gy. The median duration of follow-up was 50.5 months (range 5–220 months).

Results

Overall tumor control was achieved in 93% of patients at last follow-up; actuarial tumor control was 88% at 5 years postradiosurgery. Absence of trigeminal nerve dysfunction at the time of radiosurgery (p = 0.001) and higher number of isocenters (p = 0.005) were statistically associated with tumor progression–free tumor survival. Patients demonstrating new or progressive cranial nerve deficits were also likely to demonstrate tumor progression (p = 0.002). Pulsatile tinnitus improved in 49% of patients who reported it at presentation. New or progressive cranial nerve deficits were noted in 15% of patients; improvement in preexisting cranial nerve deficits was observed in 11% of patients. No patient died as a result of tumor progression.

Conclusions

Gamma Knife surgery was a well-tolerated management strategy that provided a high rate of long-term glomus tumor control. Symptomatic tinnitus improved in almost one-half of the patients. Overall neurological status and cranial nerve function were preserved or improved in the vast majority of patients after radiosurgery.

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Jason P. Sheehan, Robert M. Starke, Hideyuki Kano, Gene H. Barnett, David Mathieu, Veronica Chiang, James B. Yu, Judith Hess, Heyoung L. McBride, Norissa Honea, Peter Nakaji, John Y. K. Lee, Gazanfar Rahmathulla, Wendi A. Evanoff, Michelle Alonso-Basanta and L. Dade Lunsford

OBJECT

Posterior fossa meningiomas represent a common yet challenging clinical entity. They are often associated with neurovascular structures and adjacent to the brainstem. Resection can be undertaken for posterior fossa meningiomas, but residual or recurrent tumor is frequent. Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) has been used to treat meningiomas, and this study evaluates the outcome of this approach for those located in the posterior fossa.

METHODS

At 7 medical centers participating in the North American Gamma Knife Consortium, 675 patients undergoing SRS for a posterior fossa meningioma were identified, and clinical and radiological data were obtained for these cases. Females outnumbered males at a ratio of 3.8 to 1, and the median patient age was 57.6 years (range 12–89 years). Prior resection was performed in 43.3% of the patient sample. The mean tumor volume was 6.5 cm3, and a median margin dose of 13.6 Gy (range 8–40 Gy) was delivered to the tumor.

RESULTS

At a mean follow-up of 60.1 months, tumor control was achieved in 91.2% of cases. Actuarial tumor control was 95%, 92%, and 81% at 3, 5, and 10 years after radiosurgery. Factors predictive of tumor progression included age greater than 65 years (hazard ratio [HR] 2.36, 95% CI 1.30–4.29, p = 0.005), prior history of radiotherapy (HR 5.19, 95% CI 1.69–15.94, p = 0.004), and increasing tumor volume (HR 1.05, 95% CI 1.01–1.08, p = 0.005). Clinical stability or improvement was achieved in 92.3% of patients. Increasing tumor volume (odds ratio [OR] 1.06, 95% CI 1.01–1.10, p = 0.009) and clival, petrous, or cerebellopontine angle location as compared with petroclival, tentorial, and foramen magnum location (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.05–3.65, p = 0.036) were predictive of neurological decline after radiosurgery. After radiosurgery, ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement, resection, and radiation therapy were performed in 1.6%, 3.6%, and 1.5%, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS

Stereotactic radiosurgery affords a high rate of tumor control and neurological preservation for patients with posterior fossa meningiomas. Those with a smaller tumor volume and no prior radiation therapy were more likely to have a favorable response after radiosurgery. Rarely, additional procedures may be required for hydrocephalus or tumor progression.

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Hideyuki Kano, Takashi Shuto, Yoshiyasu Iwai, Jason Sheehan, Masaaki Yamamoto, Heyoung L. McBride, Mitsuya Sato, Toru Serizawa, Shoji Yomo, Akihito Moriki, Yukihiko Kohda, Byron Young, Satoshi Suzuki, Hiroyuki Kenai, Christopher Duma, Yasuhiro Kikuchi, David Mathieu, Atsuya Akabane, Osamu Nagano, Douglas Kondziolka and L. Dade Lunsford

OBJECT

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) in the management of intracranial hemangioblastomas.

METHODS

Six participating centers of the North American Gamma Knife Consortium and 13 Japanese Gamma Knife centers identified 186 patients with 517 hemangioblastomas who underwent SRS. Eighty patients had 335 hemangioblastomas associated with von Hippel–Lindau disease (VHL) and 106 patients had 182 sporadic hemangioblastomas. The median target volume was 0.2 cm3 (median diameter 7 mm) in patients with VHL and 0.7 cm3 (median diameter 11 mm) in those with sporadic hemangioblastoma. The median margin dose was 18 Gy in VHL patients and 15 Gy in those with sporadic hemangioblastomas.

RESULTS

At a median of 5 years (range 0.5–18 years) after treatment, 20 patients had died of intracranial disease progression and 9 patients had died of other causes. The overall survival after SRS was 94% at 3 years, 90% at 5 years, and 74% at 10 years. Factors associated with longer survival included younger age, absence of neurological symptoms, fewer tumors, and higher Karnofsky Performance Status. Thirty-three (41%) of the 80 patients with VHL developed new tumors and 17 (16%) of the106 patients with sporadic hemangioblastoma had recurrences of residual tumor from the original tumor. The 5-year rate of developing a new tumor was 43% for VHL patients, and the 5-year rate of developing a recurrence of residual tumor from the original tumor was 24% for sporadic hemangioblastoma patients. Factors associated with a reduced risk of developing a new tumor or recurrences of residual tumor from the original tumor included younger age, fewer tumors, and sporadic rather than VHL-associated hemangioblastomas. The local tumor control rate for treated tumors was 92% at 3 years, 89% at 5 years, and 79% at 10 years. Factors associated with an improved local tumor control rate included VHL-associated hemangioblastoma, solid tumor, smaller tumor volume, and higher margin dose. Thirteen patients (7%) developed adverse radiation effects (ARE) after SRS, and one of these patients died due to ARE.

CONCLUSIONS

When either sporadic or VHL-associated tumors were observed to grow on serial imaging studies, SRS provided tumor control in 79%–92% of tumors.

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Jason P. Sheehan, Robert M. Starke, Hideyuki Kano, Anthony M. Kaufmann, David Mathieu, Fred A. Zeiler, Michael West, Samuel T. Chao, Gandhi Varma, Veronica L. S. Chiang, James B. Yu, Heyoung L. McBride, Peter Nakaji, Emad Youssef, Norissa Honea, Stephen Rush, Douglas Kondziolka, John Y. K. Lee, Robert L. Bailey, Sandeep Kunwar, Paula Petti and L. Dade Lunsford

Object

Parasellar and sellar meningiomas are challenging tumors owing in part to their proximity to important neurovascular and endocrine structures. Complete resection can be associated with significant morbidity, and incomplete resections are common. In this study, the authors evaluated the outcomes of parasellar and sellar meningiomas managed with Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) both as an adjunct to microsurgical removal or conventional radiation therapy and as a primary treatment modality.

Methods

A multicenter study of patients with benign sellar and parasellar meningiomas was conducted through the North American Gamma Knife Consortium. For the period spanning 1988 to 2011 at 10 centers, the authors identified all patients with sellar and/or parasellar meningiomas treated with GKRS. Patients were also required to have a minimum of 6 months of imaging and clinical follow-up after GKRS. Factors predictive of new neurological deficits following GKRS were assessed via univariate and multivariate analyses. Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox multivariate regression analysis were used to assess factors predictive of tumor progression.

Results

The authors identified 763 patients with sellar and/or parasellar meningiomas treated with GKRS. Patients were assessed clinically and with neuroimaging at routine intervals following GKRS. There were 567 females (74.3%) and 196 males (25.7%) with a median age of 56 years (range 8–90 years). Three hundred fifty-five patients (50.7%) had undergone at least one resection before GKRS, and 3.8% had undergone prior radiation therapy. The median follow-up after GKRS was 66.7 months (range 6–216 months). At the last follow-up, tumor volumes remained stable or decreased in 90.2% of patients. Actuarial progression-free survival rates at 3, 5, 8, and 10 years were 98%, 95%, 88%, and 82%, respectively. More than one prior surgery, prior radiation therapy, or a tumor margin dose < 13 Gy significantly increased the likelihood of tumor progression after GKRS.

At the last clinical follow-up, 86.2% of patients demonstrated no change or improvement in their neurological condition, whereas 13.8% of patients experienced symptom progression. New or worsening cranial nerve deficits were seen in 9.6% of patients, with cranial nerve (CN) V being the most adversely affected nerve. Functional improvements in CNs, especially in CNs V and VI, were observed in 34% of patients with preexisting deficits. New or worsened endocrinopathies were demonstrated in 1.6% of patients; hypothyroidism was the most frequent deficiency. Unfavorable outcome with tumor growth and accompanying neurological decline was statistically more likely in patients with larger tumor volumes (p = 0.022) and more than 1 prior surgery (p = 0.021).

Conclusions

Gamma Knife radiosurgery provides a high rate of tumor control for patients with parasellar or sellar meningiomas, and tumor control is accompanied by neurological preservation or improvement in most patients.