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Randaline R. Barnett, Allie L. Harbert, Hengameh B. Pajer, Angela Wabulya, Valerie L. Jewells, Scott W. Elton, and Carolyn S. Quinsey

OBJECTIVE

In this study, the authors sought to investigate variables associated with postoperative seizures following endoscopic third ventriculostomy and choroid plexus cauterization (ETV/CPC) for treatment of pediatric hydrocephalus.

METHODS

A retrospective analysis of 37 patients who underwent ETV/CPC for treatment of hydrocephalus at an academic medical center from September 2016 to March 2021 was conducted. Demographics, etiology of hydrocephalus, operative details, electroencephalography (EEG) data, MRI findings, need for subsequent procedures, perioperative laboratory tests, medical history, and presence of clinical postoperative seizures were collected. Postoperative seizures were defined as clinical seizures within 24 hours of surgery. Eighteen patients received levetiracetam intraoperatively as well as over the next 7 days postoperatively for seizure prophylaxis.

RESULTS

Of 37 included patients, 9 (24%) developed clinical seizures within 24 hours after surgery, 5 of whom subsequently had electroclinical seizures captured on video-EEG. The clinical seizures in 4 of those 5 patients (80%) may have been associated with the hemisphere of the brain through which the endoscope was introduced. The median corrected age of the cohort was 3.4 months. The median corrected age of patients who did not develop postoperative seizures was 2.3 months compared with 0.7 months for patients who did develop postoperative seizures (p > 0.99). Postoperative seizures occurred in 43% (3/7) of prenatally repaired myelomeningocele patients versus 29% (2/7) of postnatally repaired myelomeningocele patients. Of the 18 patients who received prophylactic levetiracetam, none (0%) developed postoperative seizures compared with 9 of the 19 patients (47%) who did not receive prophylactic levetiracetam (p = 0.014).

CONCLUSIONS

Postoperative seizures were recorded in 24% of the pediatric patients who underwent ETV/CPC for hydrocephalus, which is higher than previously reported rates in the literature of 5%. Since 80% of the postoperative electrographic seizures may have been associated with the hemisphere through which the endoscope was introduced, the surgical entry site may contribute to postoperative seizure development. In patients who received prophylactic perioperative levetiracetam, the postoperative seizure incidence dropped to 0% compared with 47% in those who did not receive prophylactic perioperative levetiracetam. This finding indicates that the use of prophylactic perioperative levetiracetam may be efficacious in the prevention of clinical seizures in this patient population.

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Brice A. Kessler, Jo Ling Goh, Hengameh B. Pajer, Anthony M. Asher, Weston T. Northam, Sheng-Che Hung, Nathan R. Selden, and Carolyn S. Quinsey

OBJECTIVE

Rapid-sequence MRI (RSMRI) of the brain is a limited-sequence MRI protocol that eliminates ionizing radiation exposure and reduces imaging time. This systematic review sought to examine studies of clinical RSMRI use for pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) and to evaluate various RSMRI protocols used, including their reported accuracy as well as clinical and systems-based limitations to implementation.

METHODS

PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science databases were searched, and clinical articles reporting the use of a limited brain MRI protocol in the setting of pediatric head trauma were identified.

RESULTS

Of the 1639 articles initially identified and reviewed, 13 studies were included. An additional article that was in press at the time was provided by its authors. The average RSMRI study completion time was variable, spanning from 1 minute to 16 minutes. RSMRI with “blood-sensitive” sequences was more sensitive for detection of hemorrhage compared with head CT (HCT), but less sensitive for detection of skull fractures. Compared with standard MRI, RSMRI had decreased sensitivity for all evidence of trauma.

CONCLUSIONS

Protocols and uses of RSMRI for pediatric TBI were variable among the included studies. While traumatic pathology missed by RSMRI, such as small hemorrhages and linear, nondisplaced skull fractures, was frequently described as clinically insignificant, in some cases these findings may be prognostically and/or forensically significant. Institutions should integrate RSMRI into pediatric TBI management judiciously, relying on clinical context and institutional capabilities.