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Tizian Rosenstock, Thomas Picht, Heike Schneider, Peter Vajkoczy, and Ulrich-Wilhelm Thomale

OBJECTIVE

In adults, navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) has been established as a preoperative examination method for brain tumors in motor- and language-eloquent locations. However, the clinical relevance of nTMS in children with brain tumors is still unclear. Here, the authors present their initial experience with nTMS-based surgical planning and family counseling in pediatric cases.

METHODS

The authors analyzed the feasibility of nTMS and its influence on counseling and surgical strategy in a prospective study conducted between July 2017 and September 2019. The main inclusion criterion was a potential benefit from functional mapping data derived from nTMS and/or nTMS-enhanced tractography in pediatric patients who presented to the authors’ department prior to surgery for lesions close to motor- and/or speech-eloquent areas. The study was undertaken in 14 patients (median age 7 years, 8 males) who presented with different brain lesions.

RESULTS

Motor mapping combined with cortical seed area definition could be performed in 10 children (71%) to identify the corticospinal tract by additional diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). All motor mappings could be performed successfully without inducing relevant side effects. In 7 children, nTMS language mapping was performed to detect language-relevant cortical areas and DTI fiber tractography was performed to visualize the individual language network. nTMS examination was not possible in 4 children because of lack of compliance (n = 2), syncope (n = 1), and preexisting implant (n = 1). After successful mapping, the spatial relation between lesion and functional tissue was used for surgical planning in all 10 patients, and 9 children underwent nTMS-DTI integrated neuronavigation. No surgical complications or unexpected neurological deterioration was observed. In all successful nTMS cases, better function-based counseling was offered to the families. In 6 of 10 patients the surgical strategy was adapted according to nTMS data, and in 6 of 10 cases the extent of resection (EOR) was redefined.

CONCLUSIONS

nTMS and DTI fiber tracking were feasible for the majority of children. Presurgical counseling as well as surgical planning for the approach and EOR were improved by the nTMS examination results. nTMS in combination with DTI fiber tracking can be regarded as beneficial for neurosurgical procedures in eloquent areas in the pediatric population.

Free access

Ina Bährend, Max R. Muench, Heike Schneider, Rabih Moshourab, Felix R. Dreyer, Peter Vajkoczy, Thomas Picht, and Katharina Faust

OBJECTIVE

Given the interindividual variance of functional language anatomy, risk prediction based merely on anatomical data is insufficient in language area–related brain tumor surgery, suggesting the need for direct cortical and subcortical mapping during awake surgery. Reliable, noninvasive preoperative methods of language localization hold the potential for reducing the necessity for awake procedures and may improve patient counseling and surgical planning. Repetitive navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (rnTMS) is an evolving tool for localizing language-eloquent areas. The aim of this study was to investigate the reliability of rnTMS in locating cortical language sites.

METHODS

Twenty-five patients with brain tumors in speech-related areas were prospectively evaluated with preoperative rnTMS (5 Hz, train of five, average 105% resting motor threshold) and navigated direct cortical stimulation (DCS; bipolar, 50 Hz, 6–8 mA, 200-μsec pulse width) during awake surgeries employing a picture-naming task. Positive and negative stimulation spots within the craniotomy were documented in the same MRI data set. TMS and DCS language-positive areas were compared with regard to their spatial overlap, their allocation in a cortical parcellation system, and their linguistic qualities.

RESULTS

There were over twofold more positive language spots within the exposed area on rnTMS than on DCS. The comparison of positive rnTMS and DCS (ground truth) overlaps revealed low sensitivity (35%) and low positive predictive value (16%) but high specificity (90%) and high negative predictive value (96%). Within the overlaps, there was no correlation in error quality. On DCS, 73% of language-positive spots were located in the pars opercularis and pars triangularis of the frontal operculum and 24% within the supramarginal gyrus and dorsal portion of the superior temporal gyrus, while on rnTMS language positivity was distributed more evenly over a large number of gyri.

CONCLUSIONS

The current protocol for rnTMS for language mapping identified language-negative sites with good dependability but was unable to reliably detect language-positive spots. Further refinements of the technique will be needed to establish rnTMS language mapping as a useful clinical tool.

Free access

Gueliz Acker, Davide Giampiccolo, Kerstin Rubarth, Robert Mertens, Anna Zdunczyk, Juliane Hardt, Daniel Jussen, Heike Schneider, Tizian Rosenstock, Vera Mueller, Thomas Picht, and Peter Vajkoczy

OBJECTIVE

Motor cortical dysfunction has been shown to be reversible in patients with unilateral atherosclerotic disease after cerebral revascularization. Moyamoya vasculopathy (MMV) is a rare bilateral stenoocclusive cerebrovascular disease. The aim of this study was to analyze the corticospinal excitability and the role of bypass surgery in restoring cortical motor function in patients by using navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS).

METHODS

Patients with bilateral MMV who met the criteria for cerebral revascularization were prospectively included. Corticospinal excitability, cortical representation area, and intracortical inhibition and facilitation were assessed by nTMS for a small hand muscle (first dorsal interosseous) before and after revascularization. The clinically and/or hemodynamically more severely affected hemisphere was operated first as the leading hemisphere. Intra- and interhemispheric differences were analyzed before and after direct or combined revascularization.

RESULTS

A total of 30 patients with bilateral MMV were examined by nTMS prior to and after revascularization surgery. The corticospinal excitability was higher in the leading hemisphere compared with the non-leading hemisphere prior to revascularization. This hyperexcitability was normalized after revascularization as demonstrated in the resting motor threshold ratio of the hemispheres (preoperative median 0.97 [IQR 0.89–1.08], postoperative median 1.02 [IQR 0.94–1.22]; relative effect = 0.61, p = 0.03). In paired-pulse paradigms, a tendency for a weaker inhibition of the leading hemisphere was observed compared with the non-leading hemisphere. Importantly, the paired paradigm also demonstrated approximation of excitability patterns between the two hemispheres after surgery.

CONCLUSIONS

The study results suggested that, in the case of a bilateral chronic ischemia, a compensation mechanism between both hemispheres seemed to exist that normalized after revascularization surgery. A potential role of nTMS in predicting the efficacy of revascularization must be further assessed.

Restricted access

Tizian Rosenstock, Levin Häni, Ulrike Grittner, Nicolas Schlinkmann, Meltem Ivren, Heike Schneider, Andreas Raabe, Peter Vajkoczy, Kathleen Seidel, and Thomas Picht

OBJECTIVE

The authors sought to validate the navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS)–based risk stratification model. The postoperative motor outcome in glioma surgery may be preoperatively predicted based on data derived by nTMS. The tumor-to-tract distance (TTD) and the interhemispheric resting motor threshold (RMT) ratio (as a surrogate parameter for cortical excitability) emerged as major factors related to a new postoperative deficit.

METHODS

In this bicentric study, a consecutive prospectively collected cohort underwent nTMS mapping with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) fiber tracking of the corticospinal tract prior to surgery of motor eloquent gliomas. The authors analyzed whether the following items were associated with the patient’s outcome: patient characteristics, TTD, RMT value, and diffusivity parameters (fractional anisotropy [FA] and apparent diffusion coefficient [ADC]). The authors assessed the validity of the published risk stratification model and derived a new model.

RESULTS

A new postoperative motor deficit occurred in 36 of 165 patients (22%), of whom 20 patients still had a deficit after 3 months (13%; n3 months = 152). nTMS-verified infiltration of the motor cortex as well as a TTD ≤ 8 mm were confirmed as risk factors. No new postoperative motor deficit occurred in patients with TTD > 8 mm. In contrast to the previous risk stratification, the RMT ratio was not substantially correlated with the motor outcome, but high RMT values of both the tumorous and healthy hemisphere were associated with worse motor outcome. The FA value was negatively associated with worsening of motor outcome. Accuracy analysis of the final model showed a high negative predictive value (NPV), so the preoperative application may accurately predict the preservation of motor function in particular (day of discharge: sensitivity 47.2%, specificity 90.7%, positive predictive value [PPV] 58.6%, NPV 86.0%; 3 months: sensitivity 85.0%, specificity 78.8%, PPV 37.8%, NPV 97.2%).

CONCLUSIONS

This bicentric validation analysis further improved the model by adding the FA value of the corticospinal tract, demonstrating the relevance of nTMS/nTMS-based DTI fiber tracking for clinical decision making.