Srikantan Nagarajan, Heidi Kirsch, Peter Lin, Anne Findlay, Susanne Honma and Mitchel S. Berger
The goal of this study was to examine the sensitivity and specificity in preoperative localization of hand motor cortex by imaging regional event-related desynchronization (ERD) of brainwaves in the β frequency band (15–25 Hz) involved in self-paced movement.
Using magnetoencephalography (MEG), the authors measured ERD that occurred before self-paced unilateral index finger flexion in 66 patients with brain tumors, epilepsy, and arteriovenous malformations.
The authors applied an adaptive spatial filtering algorithm to MEG data and found that peaks of the tomographic distribution of β-band ERD sources reliably localized hand motor cortex compared with electrical cortical stimulation. They also observed high specificity in estimating contralateral hand motor cortical representations relative to somatosensory cortex. Neither presence nor location of tumor changed the qualitative or quantitative location of motor cortex relative to somatosensory cortex.
An imaging protocol using ERD obtained by adaptive spatial filtering of MEG data can be used for extremely reliable preoperative localization of hand motor cortex.
Edward F. Chang, Srikantan S. Nagarajan, Mary Mantle, Nicholas M. Barbaro and Heidi E. Kirsch
Routine scalp electroencephalography (EEG) cannot always distinguish whether generalized epileptiform discharges are the result of primary bilateral synchrony or secondary bilateral synchrony (SBS) from a focal origin; this is an important distinction because the latter may be amenable to resection. Whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG) has superior spatial resolution compared with traditional EEG, and can potentially elucidate seizure foci in challenging epilepsy cases in which patients are undergoing evaluation for surgery.
Sixteen patients with medically intractable epilepsy in whom SBS was suspected were referred for magnetic source (MS) imaging. All patients had bilateral, synchronous, widespread, and most often generalized spike-wave discharges on scalp EEG studies, plus some other clinical (for example, seizure semiology) or MR imaging feature (for example, focal lesion) suggesting focal onset and hence possible surgical candidacy. The MS imaging modality is the combination of whole-head MEG and parametric reconstruction of corresponding electrical brain sources. An MEG and simultaneous EEG studies were recorded with a 275-channel whole-head system. Single-equivalent current dipoles were estimated from the MEG data, and dipole locations and orientations were superimposed on patients' MR images.
The MS imaging studies revealed focal dipole clusters in 12 (75%) of the 16 patients, of which a single dipole cluster was identified in 7 patients (44%). Patient age, seizure type, duration of disease, video-EEG telemetry, and MR imaging results were analyzed to determine factors predictive of having clusters revealed on MS imaging. Of these factors, only focal MR imaging anatomical abnormalities were associated with dipole clusters (chi-square test, p = 0.03). Selective resections (including the dipole cluster) in 7 (87%) of 8 patients resulted in seizure-free or rare seizure outcomes (Engel Classes I and II).
Magnetic source imaging may provide noninvasive anatomical and neurophysiological confirmation of localization in patients in whom there is a suspicion of SBS (based on clinical or MR imaging data), especially in those with an anatomical lesion. Identification of a focal seizure origin has significant implications for both resective and nonresective treatment of intractable epilepsy.
Heidi E. Kirsch, Zhao Zhu, Susanne Honma, Anne Findlay, Mitchel S. Berger and Srikantan S. Nagarajan
Before resective brain surgery, localization of the functional regions is necessary to minimize postoperative deficits. The face area has been relatively difficult to map noninvasively by using functional imaging techniques. Preoperative localization of face somatosensory cortex with magnetoencephalography (MEG) may allow the surgeon to predict the location of mouth motor areas.
The authors compared the location of face somatosensory cortex obtained with somatosensory evoked fields during preoperative MEG with the mouth motor areas identified during intraoperative electrocortical stimulation (ECS) mapping in 13 patients undergoing resection of brain tumor.
In this group of patients, ECS mouth motor sites were usually anterior and lateral to MEG localizations of lip somatosensory cortex. The consistent quantitative relationship between results of these two mapping procedures allows the practitioner to predict the location of mouth motor cortex based on noninvasive preoperative MEG measurements.
Based on this result, the authors suggest that somatosensory mapping using MEG can be used to guide intraoperative mapping and neurosurgical planning.