✓ A case is presented in which neurological deterioration occurred during a computerized tomographic study. Total hemispheric dysfunction was seen in a patient with a postoperative suboccipital pseudomeningocele, whose head was wrapped in a compressive water bag. Cerebrospinal fluid was forced under pressure into the parenchyma of the right hemisphere, around a ventricular catheter. The neurological dysfunction resolved promptly with shunting.
Harold L. Rekate
Harold L. Rekate
The recently described condition of longstanding overt ventriculomegaly in adults (LOVA) has not been defined in terms of the need for intervention, timing of intervention, and ideal treatment. The purpose of this review was to evaluate the role of endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) in the treatment of LOVA.
Data collected in six patients with LOVA who had undergone ETV were reviewed retrospectively in terms of the definition of treatment success, rates of success, complications, and outcome. All six patients presented with headache disorders. In all patients, triventricular hydrocephalus had been diagnosed as aqueductal stenosis, and head circumference measurements were above the 98th percentile. All six had undergone successful ETV as documented by the free flow of cerebrospinal fluid into the basal cisterns, which remained open throughout the follow-up period. After the procedure, one patient experienced a mild degree of difficulty with short-term memory. Five patients remained symptomatic or had symptoms requiring further treatment 3 months to 3 years after ETV. Four patients received ventriculoperitoneal shunts, and one underwent venous stenting for high intracranial pressure after successful ETV. In two patients in whom aqueductal stenosis had been diagnosed, the sylvian aqueduct was patent after the procedure.
In LOVA patients who present with headaches, ETV may not lead to improvement in the headaches. Despite the presence of triventricular hydrocephalus, closure of the aqueduct may be a secondary phenomenon, and flow through the aqueduct may be reestablished after ETV. If intracranial hypertension persists after successful ETV, its cause may be increased venous sinus pressure.
Harold L. Rekate
Object. The literature on occipital plagiocephaly (OP) was critically reviewed to determine the feasibility of establishing treatment recommendations.
Methods. Using standard computerized search techniques, medical literature databases containing peer-review articles dating from 1966 were queried for key words related to OP. The titles of all articles were scanned for relevance, and copies of potentially relevant articles published in English were reviewed. Articles in which treatment was discussed were categorized according to their weight of evidence as Class I (prospective randomized controlled trials), Class II (clinical studies in which data are collected prospectively or retrospective analyses based on clearly reliable data), and Class III (most studies based on retrospectively collected data) to evaluate their contribution to developing a consensus on the treatment of OP.
Of the 4308 articles identified, all but 89 were excluded. Based on the review of these articles, the actual incidence of OP is unknown, and no population-based studies of its incidence or prevalence exist. The reported incidence of lambdoid craniosynostosis ranges from 3 to 20% with differences in diagnostic criteria accounting for the variability. With the possible exception of a lambdoid suture that is replaced by a dense ridge of bone, no other diagnostic criteria have been agreed on. There were no Class I studies and only one Class II study provided comparisons of outcomes in more than one treatment group with outcomes in an untreated group. Recommended treatment options included observation only, mechanical interventions, and a variety of surgical techniques.
Conclusions. Controlled clinical trials are needed before any form of intervention can be recommended for the treatment of OP. If surgery, which is expensive and potentially dangerous, is to continue to play a role in the management of this condition, efforts should be made to determine if patients with untreated OP have suffered from lack of treatment.
Harold L. Rekate
The objective of this review was to determine what information is available on the incidence, pathophysiology, late complications, and treatment paradigms for occipital plagiocephaly based on a critical review of the literature obtained from recognized databases in peer-reviewed scientific publications.
The content of this article is based on a critical review of the literature, and when discussing treatment options, classification of those articles with respect to the strength of the recommendations they contain.
Using standard computerized search techniques, databases containing medical literature were queried for key words related to occipital plagiocephaly beginning in 1966. Key words used for this search were: lambdoid, craniosynostosis, cranial sutures, facial asymmetry, torticollis, and plagiocephaly. Titles of all articles were scanned for relevance. Copies of all potentially relevant articles published in the English language were obtained and received at least a cursory review. Several articles not captured by these methods were found to be important when referenced in the articles obtained. Articles discussing treatment were divided into Class I, Class II, and Class III data for the purpose of deciding on their applicability to the development of a potential consensus for the treatment of this controversial condition.
Using the aforementioned key words, there were 4308 articles identified with potential relevance: scanning by title excluded all but 89. Of the 89, those with on-line abstracts were scanned, the remainder were obtained via interlibrary loan when needed for scanning of the article itself. The actual incidence of occipital plagiocephaly is unknown and there are no population-based studies of its incidence or prevalence. The reported incidence of lambdoid craniosynostosis ranges from 3 to 20% with the differences primarily due to differences in diagnostic criteria. With the possible exception of a lambdoid suture, which is replaced throughout its entire course by a dense ridge of bone, there are no other diagnostic criteria upon which there is agreement. There are no Class I and only one Class II studies in which a group of patients treated with one form of therapy is compared with another form of therapy or an untreated group. Treatment options that are recommended include observation only, mechanical treatments such as exercises, positioning, remodeling helmets, and a wide variety of surgical techniques. Very few reports accessed through the aforestated methodology report patients suffering any significant late effects of occipital plagiocephaly, although it may be morphometrically evident in as many as 14% of adults.
Controlled clinical trials will be needed before any form of intervention can be generally recommended. If surgery, which is expensive and potentially dangerous, is to continue to play a role in the management of this condition, efforts should be made to ascertain from the general population which patients who have not been treated have suffered from this lack of treatment.