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Michael Veldeman, Lorina Daleiden, Hussam Hamou, Anke Höllig and Hans Clusmann

OBJECTIVE

Performing a cranioplasty (CP) after decompressive craniotomy is a straightforward neurosurgical procedure, but it remains associated with a high complication rate. Surgical site infection (SSI), aseptic bone resorption (aBR), and need for a secondary CP are the most common complications. This observational study aimed to identify modifiable risk factors to prevent CP failure.

METHODS

A retrospective analysis was performed of all patients who underwent CP following decompressive hemicraniectomy (DHC) between 2010 and 2018 at a single institution. Predictors of SSI, aBR, and need for allograft CP were evaluated in a univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression model.

RESULTS

One hundred eighty-six patients treated with CP after DHC were included. The diagnoses leading to a DHC were as follows: stroke (83 patients, 44.6%), traumatic brain injury (55 patients, 29.6%), subarachnoid hemorrhage (33 patients, 17.7%), and intracerebral hemorrhage (15 patients, 8.1%). Post-CP SSI occurred in 25 patients (13.4%), whereas aBR occurred in 32 cases (17.2%). An altered posterior question-mark incision, ending behind the ear, was associated with a significantly lower infection rate and CP failure, compared to the classic question-mark incision (6.3% vs 18.4%; p = 0.021). The only significant predictor of aBR was patient age, in which those developing resorption were on average 16 years younger than those without aBR (p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS

The primary goal of this retrospective cohort analysis was to identify adjustable risk factors to prevent post-CP complications. In this analysis, a posterior question-mark incision proved beneficial regarding infection and CP failure. The authors believe that these findings are caused by the better vascularized skin flap due to preservation of the superficial temporal artery and partial preservation of the occipital artery. In this trial, the posterior question-mark incision was identified as an easily and costless adaptable technique to reduce CP failure rates.

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Hans Clusmann, Johannes Schramm, Thomas Kral, Christoph Helmstaedter, Burkhard Ostertun, Rolf Fimmers, Dorothee Haun and Christian E. Elger

Object. It is unknown whether different resection strategies for temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) produce alterations in seizure control or neuropsychological performance.

Methods. A series of 321 patients who underwent surgery for TLE between 1989 and 1997 was submitted to a uniand multifactorial analysis of clinical, electrophysiological, neuroimaging, neuropsychological, and surgical factors to determine independent predictors of outcome. Until 1993, most patients with TLE underwent standard anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL); beginning in 1993, surgical procedures were increasingly restricted to lesions detected on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and the presumed epileptogenic foci: for example, amygdalohippocampectomy (AH) or lesionectomy/corticectomy began to be used more often.

The mean follow-up duration in this study was 38 months. Two hundred twenty-seven patients were classified as seizure free (70.7%), and 36 patients had rare and nondisabling seizures (11.2%); these groups were summarized as having good seizure control (81.9%). Twenty-four patients attained more than 75% improvement (7.5%), and no worthwhile improvement was seen in 34 cases (10.6%); these groups were summarized as having unsatisfactory seizure control (18.1%).

On unifactorial analysis the following preoperative factors were associated with good seizure control (p < 0.05): single and concordant lateralizing focus on electroencephalography studies, low seizure frequency, absence of status epilepticus, concordant lateralizing memory deficit, clear abnormality on MR images, suspected ganglioglioma or dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNT), and absence of dysplasia on MR images. Stepwise logistic regression revealed a model containing five factors that were predictive for good seizure control (p < 0.1): 1) clear abnormality on MR images; 2) absence of status epilepticus; 3) MR imaging—confirmed ganglioglioma or DNT; 4) concordant lateralizing memory deficit; and 5) absence of dysplasia on MR images. Seizure outcome was mainly correlated with diagnosis and clinical factors. No significant differences were found regarding different resection types performed for comparable tumors. Neuropsychological testing revealed better postoperative results after limited resections compared with standard ATL, especially with regard to attention level, verbal memory, and calculated total neuropsychological performance.

Conclusions. Different strategies for surgical approaches in TLE result in equally good outcomes. Seizure outcome is mainly dependent on the diagnosis and clinical factors, whereas the neuropsychological results are more beneficial after resections limited to an epileptogenic lesion and focus.

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Michael Veldeman, Walid Albanna, Miriam Weiss, Catharina Conzen, Tobias Philip Schmidt, Henna Schulze-Steinen, Martin Wiesmann, Hans Clusmann and Gerrit Alexander Schubert

OBJECTIVE

The current definition of delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) is based on clinical characteristics precluding its use in patients with poor-grade subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Additional concepts to evaluate the unconscious patient are required. Invasive neuromonitoring (INM) may allow timely detection of metabolic and oxygenation crises before irreversible damage has occurred.

METHODS

The authors present a cohort analysis of all consecutive SAH patients referred to a single tertiary care center between 2010 and 2018. The cohort (n = 190) was split into two groups: one before (n = 96) and one after (n = 94) the introduction of INM in 2014. A total of 55 poor-grade SAH patients were prospectively monitored using parenchymal oxygen saturation measurement and cerebral microdialysis. The primary outcome was the Glasgow Outcome Scale–Extended (GOSE) score after 12 months.

RESULTS

With neuromonitoring, the first DCI event was detected earlier (mean 2.2 days, p = 0.002). The overall rate of DCI-related infarctions decreased significantly (from 44.8% to 22.3%; p = 0.001) after the introduction of invasive monitoring. After 12 months, a higher rate of favorable outcome was observed in the post-INM group, compared to the pre-INM group (53.8% vs 39.8%), with a significant difference in the GOSE score distribution (OR 4.86, 95% CI −1.17 to −0.07, p = 0.028).

CONCLUSIONS

In this cohort analysis of poor-grade SAH patients, the introduction of INM and the extension of the classic DCI definition toward a functional dimension resulted in an earlier detection and treatment of DCI events. This led to an overall decrease in DCI-related infarctions and an improvement in outcome.

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Devin K. Binder, Martin Podlogar, Hans Clusmann, Christian Bien, Horst Urbach, Johannes Schramm and Thomas Kral

Object

Parietal lobe epilepsy (PLE) accounts for a small percentage of extratemporal epilepsies, and only a few and mostly smaller series have been reported. Preoperative findings, surgical strategies, pathological bases, and postoperative outcomes for PLE remain to be elucidated.

Methods

Patients with PLE were identified by screening a prospective epilepsy surgery database established in 1989 at the University of Bonn. Charts, preoperative imaging studies, surgical reports, and neuropathological findings were reviewed. Seizure outcome was classified according to Engel class (I–IV).

Results

Forty patients (23 females and 17 males) with PLE were identified and had a mean age of 25.0 years and a mean preoperative epilepsy duration of 13.7 years. Nine patients had a significant medical history (for example, trauma, meningitis/encephalitis, or perinatal hypoxia). Preoperative MR imaging abnormalities were identified in 38 (95%) of 40 patients; 26 patients (65%) underwent invasive electroencephalography evaluation. After lesionectomy of the dominant (in 20 patients) or nondominant (in 20 patients) parietal lobe and additional multiple subpial transections (in 11 patients), 2 patients suffered from surgical and 12 from neurological complications, including temporary partial Gerstmann syndrome. There were no deaths. Histopathological analysis revealed 16 low-grade tumors, 11 cortical dysplasias, 9 gliotic scars, 2 cavernous vascular malformations, and 1 granulomatous inflammation. In 1 case, no histopathological diagnosis could be made. After a mean follow-up of 45 months, 27 patients (67.5%) became seizure free or had rare seizures (57.5% Engel Class I; 10% Engel Class II; 27.5% Engel Class III; and 5% Engel Class IV).

Conclusions

Parietal lobe epilepsy is an infrequent cause of extratemporal epilepsy. Satisfactory results (Engel Classes I and II) were obtained in 67.5% of patients in our series. A temporary partial hemisensory or Gerstmann syndrome occurs in a significant number of patients.

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Devin K. Binder, Marec Von Lehe, Thomas Kral, Christian G. Bien, Horst Urbach, Johannes Schramm and Hans Clusmann

Object

Occipital lobe epilepsy (OLE) accounts for a small percentage of extratemporal epilepsies and only few and mostly small patient series have been reported. Preoperative findings, surgical strategies, histopathological bases, and postoperative outcomes for OLE remain to be elucidated.

Methods

A group of 54 patients with occipital lobe involvement were identified from a prospective epilepsy surgery database established in 1989. Medical charts, surgical reports, MR imaging, and histopathology data were reviewed, and patients with additional temporal and/or parietal involvement were categorized separately. Seizure outcome was classified according to the Engel classification scheme (Classes I–IV). Two patients were excluded due to incomplete data sets. Fifty-two patients with intractable epilepsy involving predominantly the occipital lobe were included in the study, comprising 17.8% of 292 patients undergoing operations for extratemporal epilepsies.

Results

In nearly all cases (50 [96.2%] of 52), a structural lesion was visible on preoperative MR imaging. Of these cases, 29 (55.8%) had “pure” OLE with no temporal or parietal lobe involvement. Most patients (83%) had complex partial seizures, and 60% also had generalized seizures. All patients underwent occipital lesionectomies or topectomies; 9 patients (17.3%) underwent additional multiple subpial transections. Histopathology results revealed 9 cortical dysplasias (17.3%), 9 gangliogliomas (17.3%), 6 other tumors (11.5%), 13 vascular malformations (25%), and 15 glial scars (28.8%). Visual field deficits were present in 36.4% of patients preoperatively, and 42.4% had new or aggravated visual field deficits after surgery. After a mean follow-up of 80 months, 36 patients were seizure free (69.2% Engel Class I), 4 rarely had seizures (7.7% Engel Class II), 8 improved more than 75% (15.4% Engel Class III), and 4 had no significant improvement (7.7% Engel Class IV). Multifactorial logistic regression analysis revealed that early age at epilepsy manifestation (p = 0.031) and shorter epilepsy duration (p = 0.004) were predictive of better seizure control. All other clinical and surgical factors were not significant in predicting outcome.

Conclusions

Occipital lobe epilepsy is an infrequent but significant cause of extratemporal epilepsy. Satisfactory results (Engel Class I or II) were obtained in 77% of patients in our series. Postoperative visual field deficits occurred in a significant proportion of patients. In the modern MR imaging era, lesions should be investigated in patients with OLE and lesionectomies should be performed early for a better outcome.