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Matthias Schulz, Christoph Bührer, Anja Pohl-Schickinger, Hannes Haberl, and Ulrich-Wilhelm Thomale

Object

Neonatal intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) may evolve into posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus and cause neurodevelopmental impairment. In this study, an endoscopic surgical approach directed toward the removal of intraventricular hematoma was evaluated for its safety and efficacy.

Methods

Between August 2010 and December 2012 (29 months), 19 neonates with posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus underwent neuroendoscopic lavage for removal of intraventricular blood remnants. During a similar length of time (29 months) from March 2008 to July 2010, 10 neonates were treated conventionally, initially using temporary CSF diversion via lumbar punctures, a ventricular access device, or an external ventricular drain. Complications and shunt dependency rates were evaluated retrospectively.

Results

The patient groups did not differ regarding gestational age and birth weight. In the endoscopy group, no relevant procedure-related complications were observed. After the endoscopic lavage, 11 (58%) of 19 patients required a later shunt insertion, as compared with 100% of infants treated conventionally (p < 0.05). Endoscopic lavage was associated with fewer numbers of overall necessary procedures (median 2 vs 3.5 per patient, respectively; p = 0.08), significantly fewer infections (2 vs 5 patients, respectively; p < 0.05), or supratentorial multiloculated hydrocephalus (0 vs 4 patients, respectively; p < 0.01).

Conclusions

Within the presented setup the authors could demonstrate the feasibility and safety of neuroendoscopic lavage for the treatment of posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus in neonates with IVH. The nominally improved results warrant further verification in a multicenter, prospective study.

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Matthias Schulz, Georg Bohner, Hannah Knaus, Hannes Haberl, and Ulrich-Wilhelm Thomale

Object

Multiloculated hydrocephalus remains a challenging condition to treat in the pediatric hydrocephalic population. In a retrospective study, the authors reviewed their experience with navigated endoscopy to treat multiloculated hydrocephalus in children.

Methods

Between April 2004 and September 2008, navigated endoscopic procedures were performed in 16 children with multiloculated hydrocephalus (median age 8 months, mean age 16.1 ± 23.3 months). In all patients preoperative MR imaging was used for planning entry sites and trajectories of the endoscopic approach for cyst perforation and catheter positioning. Intraoperatively, a rigid endoscope was tracked by the navigation system. For all children the total number of operative procedures, navigated endoscopic procedures, implanted ventricular catheters, and drained compartments were recorded. In addition, postoperative complications and radiological follow-up data were analyzed.

Results

In 16 children, a total of 91 procedures were performed to treat multiloculated hydrocephalus, including 29 navigated endoscopic surgeries. Finally, 21 navigated procedures involved 1 ventricular catheter and 8 involved 2 catheters for CSF diversion via the shunt. The average number of drained compartments in a shunt was 3.6 ± 1.7 (range 2–9 compartments). In 9 patients (56%) a navigated endoscopic procedure constituted the last procedure within the follow-up period. One additional surgery was necessary in 3 patients (19%) after navigated endoscopy, and in 4 patients (25%) 2 further procedures were necessary after navigated endoscopy. Serial follow-up MR imaging demonstrated evidence of sufficient CSF diversion in all patients.

Conclusions

Navigated endoscopic surgery is a safe and effective treatment option for multiloculated hydrocephalus. The combination of the endoscopic approach and neuronavigation further refines preoperative planning and intraoperative orientation. The aim of treatment is to drain as many compartments as possible and as soon as possible, thereby establishing sufficient CSF drainage with few ventricular catheters in single shunt systems. Close clinical and radiological follow-up is mandatory because multiple revisions are likely.

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Mascha Hochfeld, Hans Lamecker, Ulrich-W. Thomale, Matthias Schulz, Stefan Zachow, and Hannes Haberl

The authors report on the first experiences with the prototype of a surgical tool for cranial remodeling. The device enables the surgeon to transfer statistical information, represented in a model, into the disfigured bone. The model is derived from a currently evolving databank of normal head shapes. Ultimately, the databank will provide a set of standard models covering the statistical range of normal head shapes, thus providing the required template for any standard remodeling procedure as well as customized models for intended overcorrection. To date, this technique has been used in the surgical treatment of 14 infants (age range 6–12 months) with craniosynostosis. In all 14 cases, the designated esthetic result, embodied by the selected model, has been achieved, without morbidity or mortality.

Frame-based reconstruction provides the required tools to precisely realize the surgical reproduction of the model shape. It enables the establishment of a self-referring system, feeding back postoperative growth patterns, recorded by 3D follow-up, into the model design.

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Abdallah Salemdawod, Johannes Wach, Mohammed Banat, Valeri Borger, Motaz Hamed, Hannes Haberl, Robert Sassen, Alexander Radbruch, Albert J. Becker, Hartmut Vatter, Rainer Surges, and Sevgi Sarikaya-Seiwert

OBJECTIVE

Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) is a common cause of early-onset intractable epilepsy, and resection is a highly sufficient treatment option. In this study, the authors aimed to provide a retrospective analysis of pre- and postoperative factors and their impact on postoperative long-term seizure outcome.

METHODS

The postoperative seizure outcomes of 50 patients with a mean age of 8 ± 4.49 years and histologically proven FCD type II were retrospectively analyzed. Furthermore, pre- and postoperative predictors of long-term seizure freedom were assessed. The seizure outcome was evaluated based on the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) classification.

RESULTS

Complete resection of FCD according to MRI criteria was achieved in 74% (n = 37) of patients. ILAE class 1 at the last follow-up was achieved in 76% (n = 38) of patients. A reduction of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) to monotherapy or complete withdrawal was achieved in 60% (n = 30) of patients. Twelve patients (24%) had a late seizure recurrence, 50% (n = 6) of which occurred after reduction of AEDs. A lower number of AEDs prior to surgery significantly predicted a favorable seizure outcome (p = 0.013, HR 7.63). Furthermore, younger age at the time of surgery, shorter duration of epilepsy prior to surgery, and complete resection were positive predictors for long-term seizure freedom.

CONCLUSIONS

The duration of epilepsy, completeness of resection, number of AEDs prior to surgery, and younger age at the time of surgery served as predictors of postoperative long-term seizure outcome, and, as such, may improve clinical practice when selecting and counseling appropriate candidates for resective epilepsy surgery. The study results also underscored that epilepsy surgery should be considered early in the disease course of pediatric patients with FCD type II.