Tao Li, Jianmin Li, Zhen Wang, Baodong Liu, Dunfu Han and Pengyun Wang
Percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) combined with brachytherapy using the interstitial implantation of 125I seeds has previously yielded encouraging clinical results in the treatment of metastatic vertebral tumors. However, the bone cement injection volume is very small due to the osteolytic damage to the metastatic vertebrae, and the ideal spatial distribution of the 125I seeds is difficult to achieve. In the current study, the authors present a clinical method for puncture needle insertion to achieve a greater bone cement injection volume and a more ideal spatial distribution of the 125I seeds.
Twenty-nine patients with osteolytic metastatic vertebral tumors were divided into 2 groups and were treated with either PVP combined with multineedle interstitial implantation of 125I seeds, or PVP combined with single-needle interstitial implantation of 125I seeds. Clinical efficacy was evaluated according to a visual analog scale (VAS) of pain, the Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS), and the Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST).
Back pain was significantly alleviated in all patients after surgery. Compared with the preoperative scores, the VAS scores were significantly decreased in both groups at 1 week and 3 months postoperatively (p < 0.05), but there were no significant intergroup differences (p > 0.05). The postoperative quality of life was improved in both groups; the KPS scores increased significantly compared with the preoperative scores (p < 0.05), and the postoperative KPS scores were significantly different between the 2 groups (p < 0.05). No intergroup differences were observed in pain alleviation, but the bone cement injection volume was significantly greater in the multineedle group than in the single-needle group (p < 0.05). The clinical benefit rate and disease control rate at 3 months after the operation were both significantly better for the multineedle group (p < 0.05).
The outcomes of PVP combined with multineedle interstitial implantation of 125I seeds in patients with osteolytic metastatic vertebral tumors appeared to be better than the outcomes of PVP combined with single-needle interstitial implantation of 125I seeds. These better outcomes may be the result of the greater bone cement injection volume and the more ideal spatial distribution of the 125I seeds.
Ching-Yi Lee, Han-Tao Li, Tony Wu, Mei-Yun Cheng, Siew-Na Lim and Shih-Tseng Lee
Radiofrequency thermocoagulation (RFTC), which has been developed for drug-resistant epilepsy patients, involves less brain tissue loss due to surgery, fewer surgical adverse effects, and generally good seizure control. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of RFTC performed at limited hippocampal locations.
Daily seizure diaries were prospectively maintained for at least 6 months by 9 patients (ages 30–59 years) with drug-resistant mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) before treatment with RFTC. The limited target for stereotactic RFTC was chosen based on intraoperative electroencephalography (EEG) recording and was initially tested with a Radionics electrode at a low temperature, 45°C, for 60 seconds. The therapeutic RFTC heating parameters were 78°C–80°C for 90 seconds. All patients who received the RFTC treatment underwent both MRI and EEG recording immediately postoperatively and at the 3-month follow-up. Monthly outpatient clinic visits were arranged over 6 months to document seizure frequency and severity to clarify the changes noted in imaging studies and EEG patterns.
Two patients were excluded from our analysis because one had undergone multiple seizure surgeries and the other had a poor recording of seizure frequency, before the RFTC surgery. Five and two patients underwent left-sided and right-sided RFTC, respectively. None of the patients had generalized tonic-clonic attacks postoperatively, and no adverse effects or complications occurred. According to MRI data, the effect of coagulation was limited to less than 1.0 cm in diameter and perifocal edema was also in limited range. The seizure frequency within 6 months decreased postoperatively with a mean reduction in seizures of 78% (range 36%–100%). Only two patients had a temporary increase in seizure frequency within 2 weeks of the surgery, and over 50% of all patients showed a decrease in average seizure frequency.
The study results confirm that limited RFTC provides a more effective surgery with similar seizure control but fewer complications than resective surgery for drug-resistant MTLE patients.
Hua-Jun Zhou, Tao Tang, Han-Jin Cui, A-Li Yang, Jie-Kun Luo, Yuan Lin, Qi-Dong Yang and Xing-Qun Li
Angiogenesis occurs after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Thrombin mediates mitogenesis and survival in endothelial cells and induces angiogenesis. The present study aimed to clarify whether thrombin is involved in triggering ICH-related angiogenesis.
In the first part of the experiment, autologous blood (with or without hirudin) was injected to induce ICH. In the second part, rats received either 1 U (50 μl) thrombin or 50 μl 0.9% sterile saline. In both parts, 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) was administered intraperitoneally. Brains were perfused to identify BrdU-positive/von Willebrand factor (vWF)–positive nuclei. The expression of hypoxia-inducible factor–1α (HIF-1α), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) and Ang-2 was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction.
After ICH, the number of BrdU-/vWF-positive nuclei increased until Day 14, and vessels positive for HIF-1α, VEGF, Ang-1, and Ang-2 were observed around the clot. Quantitative analysis showed that ICH upregulated expression of HIF-1α, VEGF, Ang-1, and Ang-2 notably compared with that in sham controls (p < 0.05). However, hirudin significantly inhibited these effects. After thrombin treatment, many BrdU-positive/vWF-positive nuclei and HIF-1α–, VEGF-, Ang-1– and Ang-2–positive vessels could be detected around the affected region.
Thrombin can induce angiogenesis in rat brains and may be an important trigger for ICH-related angiogenesis.
Jian-Hua Zhong, Hua-Jun Zhou, Tao Tang, Han-Jin Cui, A-Li Yang, Qi-Mei Zhang, Jing-Hua Zhou, Qiang Zhang, Xun Gong, Zhao-Hui Zhang and Zhi-Gang Mei
Reactive astrogliosis, a key feature that is characterized by glial proliferation, has been observed in rat brains after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). However, the mechanisms that control reactive astrogliosis formation remain unknown. Notch-1 signaling plays a critical role in modulating reactive astrogliosis. The purpose of this paper was to establish whether Notch-1 signaling is involved in reactive astrogliosis after ICH.
ICH was induced in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats via stereotactic injection of autologous blood into the right globus pallidus. N-[N-(3,5-difluorophenacetyl)-l-alanyl]-S-phenylglycine t-butyl ester (DAPT) was injected into the lateral ventricle to block Notch-1 signaling. The rats’ brains were perfused to identify proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-positive/GFAP-positive nuclei. The expression of GFAP, Notch-1, and the activated form of Notch-1 (Notch intracellular domain [NICD]) and its ligand Jagged-1 was assessed using immunohistochemical and Western blot analyses, respectively.
Notch-1 signaling was upregulated and activated after ICH as confirmed by an increase in the expression of Notch-1 and NICD and its ligand Jagged-1. Remarkably, blockade of Notch-1 signaling with the specific inhibitor DAPT suppressed astrocytic proliferation and GFAP levels caused by ICH. In addition, DAPT improved neurological outcome after ICH.
Notch-1 signaling is a critical regulator of ICH-induced reactive astrogliosis, and its blockage may be a potential therapeutic strategy for hemorrhagic injury.