Mehmet Arslan, Ayhan Cömert, Halil İbrahim Açar, Mevci Özdemir, Alaittin Elhan, İbrahim Tekdemir, R. Shane Tubbs, Ayhan Attar, and Hasan Çağlar Uğur
Although infrequent, injury to adjacent neurovascular structures during posterior approaches to lumbar intervertebral discs can occur. A detailed anatomical knowledge of relationships may decrease surgical complications.
Ten formalin-fixed male cadavers were used for this study. Posterior exposure of the lumbar thecal sac, nerve roots, pedicles, and intervertebral discs was performed. To identify retroperitoneal structures at risk during posterior lumbar discectomy, a transabdominal retroperitoneal approach was performed, and observations were made. The distances between the posterior and anterior edges of the lumbar intervertebral discs were measured, and the relationships between the disc space, pedicle, and nerve root were evaluated.
For right and left sides, the mean distance from the inferior pedicle to the disc gradually increased from L1–2 to L4–5 (range 2.7–3.8 mm and 2.9–4.5 mm for right and left side, respectively) and slightly decreased at L5–S1. For right and left sides, the mean distance from the superior pedicle to the disc was more or less the same for all disc spaces (range 9.3–11.6 mm and 8.2–10.5 mm for right and left, respectively). The right and left mean disc-to-root distance for the L3–4 to L5–S1 levels ranged from 8.3 to 22.1 mm and 7.2 to 20.6 mm, respectively. The root origin gradually increased from L-1 to L-5. The right and left nerve root–to-disc angle gradually decreased from L-3 to S-1 (range 105°–110.6° and 99°–108°). Disc heights gradually increased from L1–2 to L5–S1 (range 11.3–17.4 mm). The mean distance between the anterior and posterior borders of the intervertebral discs ranged from 39 to 46 mm for all levels.
To avoid neighboring neurovascular structures, instrumentation should not be inserted into the lumbar disc spaces more than 3 cm from their posterior edge. Accurate anatomical knowledge of the relationships of intervertebral discs to nerve roots is needed for spine surgeons.
Simel Kendir, Halil Ibrahim Acar, Ayhan Comert, Mevci Ozdemir, Gokmen Kahilogullari, Alaittin Elhan, and Hasan Caglar Ugur
Knowledge of the cranium projections of the gyral structures is essential to reduce the surgical complications and to perform minimally invasive interventions in daily neurosurgical practice. Thus, in this study the authors aimed to provide detailed information on cranial projections of the eloquent cortical areas.
Ten formalin-fixed adult human skulls were obtained. Using sutures and craniometrical points, the crania were divided into 8 windows: superior frontal, inferior frontal, superior parietal, inferior parietal, sphenoidal, temporal, superior occipital, and inferior occipital. The projections of the precentral gyrus, postcentral gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, transverse temporal gyri, Heschl gyrus, genu and splenium of the corpus callosum, supramarginal gyrus, angular gyrus, calcarine sulcus, and sylvian fissure to cranial vault were evaluated.
Three-fourths of the precentral gyrus and postcentral gyrus were in the superior parietal window. The inferior frontal gyrus extended to the inferior parietal window in 80%. The 3 important parts of this gyrus were located below the superior temporal line in all hemispheres. The orbital and triangular parts were in the inferior frontal window, and the opercular part was in the inferior parietal window. The superior temporal gyrus was usually located in the inferior parietal and temporal windows, whereas the supramarginal gyrus and angular gyrus were usually located in the superior and inferior parietal windows. The farthest anterior point of the Heschl gyrus was usually located in the inferior parietal window. The mean positions of arachnoid granulations were measured as 3.9 ± 0.39 cm anterior and 7.3 ± 0.51 cm posterior to the bregma.
Given that recognition of the gyral patterns underlying the craniotomies is not always easy, awareness of the coordinates and projections of certain gyri according to the craniometric points may considerably contribute to surgical interventions.