Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 7 of 7 items for

  • Author or Editor: Hai Le x
  • Refine by Access: all x
Clear All Modify Search
Full access

Darryl Lau, John E. Ziewacz, Hai Le, Rishi Wadhwa, and Praveen V. Mummaneni

OBJECT

Cervical kyphosis can lead to spinal instability, spinal cord injury, and disability. The correction of cervical kyphosis is technically challenging, especially in severe cases. The authors describe the anterior sequential interbody dilation technique for the treatment of cervical kyphosis and evaluate perioperative outcomes, degree of correction, and long-term follow-up outcomes associated with the technique.

METHODS

In the period from 2006 to 2011, a consecutive cohort of adults with cervical kyphosis (Cobb angles ≥ 0°) underwent sequential interbody dilation, a technique entailing incrementally increased interbody distraction with the sequential placement of larger spacers (at least 1 mm) in the discectomy and/or corpectomy spaces. The authors retrospectively reviewed these patients, and primary outcomes of interest included kyphosis correction, blood loss, hospital stay, complications, Nurick grade, pain, reoperation, and pseudarthrosis. A subgroup analysis among patients with preoperative kyphosis of 0°–9° (mild), 10°–19° (moderate), and ≥ 20° (severe) was performed.

RESULTS

One hundred patients were included in the study: 74 with mild preoperative cervical kyphosis, 19 with moderate, and 7 with severe. The mean patient age was 53.1 years, and 54.0% of the patients were male. Mean estimated blood loss was 305.6 ml, and the mean length of hospital stay was 5.2 days. The overall complication rate was 9.0%, and there were no deaths. Sixteen percent of patients underwent supplemental posterior fusion. There was significant correction in cervical alignment (p < 0.001), and the mean overall kyphosis correction was 12.4°. Patients with severe preoperative kyphosis gained a correction of 24.7°, those with moderate kyphosis gained 17.8°, and those with mild kyphosis gained 10.1°. A mean correction of 32.0° was obtained if 5 levels were addressed. The mean follow-up was 26.8 months. The reoperation rate was 4.7%. At follow-up, there was significant improvement in visual analog scale neck pain (p = 0.020) and Nurick grade (p = 0.037). The pseudarthrosis rate was 6.3%.

CONCLUSIONS

Sequential interbody dilation is a feasible and effective method of correcting cervical kyphosis. Complications and reoperation rates are low. Similar benefits are seen among all severities of kyphosis, and greater correction can be achieved in more severe cases.

Free access

Rishi Wadhwa, Praveen V. Mummaneni, Darryl Lau, Hai Le, Dean Chou, and Sanjay S. Dhall

Object

The most common indications for circumferential cervical decompression and fusion are cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) and cervical osteomyelitis (COM). Currently, the informed consent process prior to circumferential cervical fusion surgery is not different for these two groups of patients, as details of their diagnosis-specific risk profiles have not been quantified. The authors compared two patient cohorts with either CSM or COM treated using circumferential fusion. They sought to quantify perioperative morbidity and postoperative mortality in these two groups to assist with a diagnosis-specific informed consent process for future patients undergoing this type of surgery.

Methods

Perioperative and follow-up data from two cohorts of patients who had undergone circumferential cervical decompression and fusion were analyzed. Estimated blood loss (EBL), length of stay (LOS), perioperative complications, hospital readmission, 30-day reoperation rates, change in Nurick grade, and mortality were compared between the two groups.

Results

Twenty-two patients were in the COM cohort, and 24 were in the CSM cohort. Complications, hospital readmission, 30-day reoperation rates, EBL, and mortality were not statistically different, although patients with COM trended higher in each of these categories. There was a significantly greater LOS (p < 0.001) in the COM group and greater improvement in Nurick grade in the CSM group (p < 0.001).

Conclusions

When advising patients undergoing circumferential fusion about perioperative risk factors, it is important for those with COM to know that they are likely to have a higher rate of complications and mortality than those with CSM who are undergoing similar surgery. Furthermore, COM patients have less neurological improvement than CSM patients after surgery. This information may be useful to surgeons and patients in providing appropriate informed consent during preoperative planning.

Free access

Jason S. Cheng, Priscilla Park, Hai Le, Lori Reisner, Dean Chou, and Praveen V. Mummaneni

Object

Previous studies comparing minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MITLIF) with open TLIF have demonstrated that MITLIF reduces blood loss and decreases postoperative pain while preserving fusion rates and reducing complications. In this study, the authors wanted to compare outcomes of MITLIF with those of open TLIF to determine whether MITLIF also improves postoperative functional mobility and decreases the usage of pain medication.

Methods

In total, 75 consecutive patients who underwent either single-level open TLIF or MITLIF at the University of California, San Francisco, between 2006 and 2011 were included, and patients were followed up for an average of 5.05 years. Fifty patients underwent MITLIF and 25 underwent open TLIF. Primary outcomes included administration of morphine-equivalent narcotics and functional status on postoperative Day 1. Secondary outcomes included operative characteristics, complications, long-term fusion rates, and visual analog scale (VAS) scores.

Results

No statistically significant differences in age, sex, body mass index (BMI), level of disease, or surgical indication were detected between the open TLIF and MITLIF groups. Similarly, preoperative medication usage did not significantly differ between these groups. Intraoperatively, compared with TLIF, MITLIF resulted in decreased lengths of operation, lower blood loss, and fewer complications (p < 0.05). Total administration of morphine-equivalent pain medication in the hospital also tended to be lower in the MITLIF than in the TLIF group. Functional assessment by physical therapy on postoperative Day 1 demonstrated higher function in the MITLIF patients for transfer-related tasks, ambulatory ability, and distance walked than in the TLIF patients (p < 0.05). This translated to shorter inpatient hospitalizations (6.05 vs 4.8 days for open TLIF vs MITLIF patients, respectively, p = 0.006) and an average cost reduction of $3885 per MITLIF patient. Long-term fusion rates were 92% in the MITLIF group and 100% in the open TLIF group (p = 0.09). Preoperative VAS pain scores were 7.1 for the MITLIF patients and 7.6 for the TLIF patients (p = 0.26). At the last follow-up, the reported VAS pain score was 2.9 in the MITLIF patients and 3.5 in the open TLIF patients, but this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.25). There was also no statistically significant difference in the degree change in this score (p = 0.44).

Conclusions

The MITLIF approach achieves improved functional mobility, decreases the usage of postoperative pain medication, and significantly reduces cost compared with open TLIF while preserving long-term fusion rates. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study comparing the postoperative usage of pain medication between treatments in the postoperative period before discharge.

Full access

Takahito Fujimori, Hai Le, John E. Ziewacz, Dean Chou, and Praveen V. Mummaneni

Object

There are little data on the effects of plated, or plate-only, open-door laminoplasty on cervical range of motion (ROM), neck pain, and clinical outcomes. The purpose of this study was to compare ROM after a plated laminoplasty in patients with ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) versus those with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) and to correlate ROM with postoperative neck pain and neurological outcomes.

Methods

The authors retrospectively compared patients with a diagnosis of cervical stenosis due to either OPLL or CSM who had been treated with plated laminoplasty in the period from 2007 to 2012 at the University of California, San Francisco. Clinical outcomes were measured using the modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association (mJOA) scale and neck visual analog scale (VAS). Radiographic outcomes included assessment of changes in the C2–7 Cobb angle at flexion and extension, ROM at C2–7, and ROM of proximal and distal segments adjacent to the plated lamina.

Results

Sixty patients (40 men and 20 women) with an average age of 63.1 ± 10.9 years were included in the study. Forty-one patients had degenerative CSM and 19 patients had OPLL. The mean follow-up period was 20.9 ± 13.1 months.

The mean mJOA score significantly improved in both the CSM and the OPLL groups (12.8 to 14.5, p < 0.01; and 13.2 to 14.2, respectively; p = 0.04). In the CSM group, the mean VAS neck score significantly improved from 4.2 to 2.6 after surgery (p = 0.01), but this improvement did not reach the minimum clinically important difference (MCID). Neither was there significant improvement in the VAS neck score in the OPLL group (3.6 to 3.1, p = 0.17).

In the CSM group, ROM at C2–7 significantly decreased from 32.7° before surgery to 24.4° after surgery (p < 0.01). In the OPLL group, ROM at C2–7 significantly decreased from 34.4° to 20.8° (p < 0.01). In the CSM group, the change in the VAS neck score significantly correlated with the change in the flexion angle (r = − 0.31) and the extension angle (r = − 0.37); however, it did not correlate with the change in ROM at C2–7 (r = − 0.1). In the OPLL group, the change in the VAS neck score did not correlate with the change in the flexion angle (r = 0.03), the extension angle (r = − 0.17), or the ROM at C2–7 (r = − 0.28). The OPLL group had a significantly greater loss of ROM after surgery than did the CSM group (p = 0.04). There was no significant correlation between the change in ROM and the mJOA score in either group.

Conclusions

Plated laminoplasty in patients with either OPLL or CSM decreases cervical ROM, especially in the extension angle. Among patients who have undergone laminoplasty, those with OPLL lose more ROM than do those with CSM. No correlation was observed between neck pain and ROM in either group. Neither group had a change in neck pain that reached the MCID following laminoplasty. Both groups improved in neurological function and outcomes.

Free access

Rajiv Saigal, Darryl Lau, Rishi Wadhwa, Hai Le, Morsi Khashan, Sigurd Berven, Dean Chou, and Praveen V. Mummaneni

Object

Long-segment spinal instrumentation ending at the sacrum places substantial biomechanical stress on sacral screws. Iliac (pelvic) screws relieve some of this stress by supplementing the caudal fixation. It remains an open question whether there is any clinically significant difference in sacropelvic fixation with bilateral versus unilateral iliac screws. The primary purpose of this study was to compare clinical and radiographic complications in the use of bilateral versus unilateral iliac screw fixation.

Methods

The authors retrospectively reviewed 102 consecutive spinal fixation cases that extended to the pelvis at a single institution (University of California, San Francisco) in the period from 2005 to 2012 performed by the senior authors. Charts were reviewed for the following complications: reoperation, L5–S1 pseudarthrosis, sacral insufficiency fracture, hardware prominence, iliac screw loosening, and infection. The t-test, Pearson chi-square test, and Fisher exact test were used to determine statistical significance.

Results

The mean follow-up was 31 months. Thirty cases were excluded: 12 for inadequate follow-up, 15 for lack of L5–S1 interbody fusion, and 3 for preoperative osteomyelitis. The mean age among the 72 remaining cases was 62 years (range 39–79 years). Forty-six patients underwent unilateral and 26 bilateral iliac screw fixation. Forty-one percent (n = 19) of the unilateral cases and 50% (n = 13) of the bilateral cases were treated with reoperation (p = 0.48). In addition, 13% (n = 6) of the unilateral and 19% (n = 5) of the bilateral cases developed L5–S1 pseudarthrosis (p = 0.51). There were no sacral insufficiency fractures. Thirteen percent (n = 6) of the unilateral and 7.7% (n = 2) of the bilateral cases developed postoperative infection (p = 0.70).

Conclusions

In a retrospective single-institution study, single versus dual pelvic screws led to comparable rates of reoperation, iliac screw removal, postoperative infection, pseudarthrosis, and sacral insufficiency fractures. For spinopelvic fixation, placing bilateral (vs unilateral) pelvic screws produced no added clinical benefit in most cases.

Free access

Takahito Fujimori, Shinichi Inoue, Hai Le, William W. Schairer, Sigurd H. Berven, Bobby K. Tay, Vedat Deviren, Shane Burch, Motoki Iwasaki, and Serena S. Hu

Object

Despite increasing numbers of patients with adult spinal deformity, it is unclear how to select the optimal upper instrumented vertebra (UIV) in long fusion surgery for these patients. The purpose of this study was to compare the use of vertebrae in the upper thoracic (UT) versus lower thoracic (LT) spine as the upper instrumented vertebra in long fusion surgery for adult spinal deformity.

Methods

Patients who underwent fusion from the sacrum to the thoracic spine for adult spinal deformity with sagittal imbalance at a single medical center were studied. The patients with a sagittal vertical axis (SVA) ≥ 40 mm who had radiographs and completed the 12-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12) preoperatively and at final follow-up (≥ 2 years postoperatively) were included.

Results

Eighty patients (mean age of 61.1 ± 10.9 years; 69 women and 11 men) met the inclusion criteria. There were 31 patients in the UT group and 49 patients in the LT group. The mean follow-up period was 3.6 ± 1.6 years. The physical component summary (PCS) score of the SF-12 significantly improved from the preoperative assessment to final follow-up in each group (UT, 34 to 41; LT, 29 to 37; p = 0.001). This improvement reached the minimum clinically important difference in both groups. There was no significant difference in PCS score improvement between the 2 groups (p = 0.8). The UT group had significantly greater preoperative lumbar lordosis (28° vs 18°, p = 0.03) and greater thoracic kyphosis (36° vs 18°, p = 0.001). After surgery, there was no significant difference in lumbar lordosis or thoracic kyphosis. The UT group had significantly greater postoperative cervicothoracic kyphosis (20° vs 11°, p = 0.009). The UT group tended to maintain a smaller positive SVA (51 vs 73 mm, p = 0.08) and smaller T-1 spinopelvic inclination (−2.6° vs 0.6°, p = 0.06). The LT group tended to have more proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK), although the difference did not reach statistical significance. Radiographic PJK was 32% in the UT group and 41% in the LT group (p = 0.4). Surgical PJK was 6.4% in the UT group and 10% in the LT group (p = 0.6).

Conclusions

Both the UT and LT groups demonstrated significant improvement in clinical and radiographic outcomes. A significant difference was not observed in improvement of clinical outcomes between the 2 groups.

Restricted access

Hai V. Le, Joseph B. Wick, Renaud Lafage, Gregory M. Mundis Jr., Robert K. Eastlack, Shay Bess, Douglas C. Burton, Christopher P. Ames, Justin S. Smith, Peter G. Passias, Munish C. Gupta, Virginie Lafage, Eric O. Klineberg, and the International Spine Study Group

OBJECTIVE

The authors’ objective was to determine whether preoperative lateral extension cervical spine radiography can be used to predict osteotomy type and postoperative alignment parameters after cervical spine deformity surgery.

METHODS

A total of 106 patients with cervical spine deformity were reviewed. Radiographic parameters on preoperative cervical neutral and extension lateral radiography were compared with 3-month postoperative radiographic alignment parameters. The parameters included T1 slope, C2 slope, C2–7 cervical lordosis, cervical sagittal vertical axis, and T1 slope minus cervical lordosis. Associations of radiographic parameters with osteotomy type and surgical approach were also assessed.

RESULTS

On extension lateral radiography, patients who underwent lower grade osteotomy had significantly lower T1 slope, T1 slope minus cervical lordosis, cervical sagittal vertical axis, and C2 slope. Patients who achieved more normal parameters on extension lateral radiography were more likely to undergo surgery via an anterior approach. Although baseline parameters were significantly different between neutral lateral and extension lateral radiographs, 3-month postoperative lateral and preoperative extension lateral radiographs were statistically similar for T1 slope minus cervical lordosis and C2 slope.

CONCLUSIONS

Radiographic parameters on preoperative extension lateral radiography were significantly associated with surgical approach and osteotomy grade and were similar to those on 3-month postoperative lateral radiography. These results demonstrated that extension lateral radiography is useful for preoperative planning and predicting postoperative alignment.