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Hae-Dong Jho

✓ A new technique of microsurgical anterior foraminotomy was developed to improve the treatment of cervical radiculopathy. This technique provides direct anatomical decompression of the compressed nerve root by removing the compressive spondylotic spur or disc fragment. The nerve root is decompressed from its origin in the spinal cord to the point at which it passes behind the vertebral artery laterally. Because most of the disc within the intervertebral space is undisturbed, a functioning motion segment of the disc remains intact. This technique differs from that of Verbiest in that it does not directly transpose the vertebral artery. Unlike Hakuba's technique, the disc within the intervertebral disc space is not removed.

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Hae-Dong Jho

Object

To minimize the invasiveness and maximize the adequacy of the decompressive proceedure in thoracic discectomy, a 70° endoscope was adopted to perform transpedicular thoracic discectomy.

Methods

A posterior transpedicular approach was performed via a 2-cm transverse skin incision, using the operating microscope or a 0°-lens endoscope. Using a 70°-lens endoscope, discectomy was performed after obtaining direct visualization of the ventral aspect of the spinal cord dura mater. This surgical technique has been used in 25 patients. There were 12 men and 13 women whose age ranged from 29 to 70 years (median 46 years). Thirteen patients experienced myelopathy, with or without radiculopathy, 10 presented with radiculopathy, and two patients suffered from segmental pain. The follow-up period ranged from 4 to 60 months (median 27 months). In 12 of the 13 patients with myelopathy, excellent improvement was shown postoperatively. In the remaining patient, symptoms recurred when she was injured in a motor vehicle accident 3 months postsurgery. In nine of 10 patients with radiculopathy pain resolved completely. In the one patient with right-sided hypochondral pain and in the two patients with segmental pain no relief was obtained despite excellent discectomy results that were demonstrated on postoperative magnetic resonance images. The average length of hospital stay was overnight.

Conclusions

The use of a 70°-lens endoscope via a transpedicular route has made thoracic discectomy comparable with cervical or lumbar discectomy in its surgical invasiveness, in the patient's recovery time, and in complexity of surgical procedure.

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Hae-Dong Jho

A new technique of microsurgical anterior foraminotomy was developed to improve the treatment of cervical radiculopathy. This technique provides direct anatomical decompression of the compressed nerve root by removing the compressive spondylotic spur or disc fragment. The nerve root is decompressed from its origin in the spinal cord to the point at which it passes behind the vertebral artery laterally. Because most of the disc within the intervertebral space is undisturbed, a functioning motion segment of the disc remains intact. This technique differs from that of Verbiest in that it does not directly transpose the vertebral artery. Unlike Hakuba's technique, the disc within the intervertebral disc space is not removed.

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Hae-Dong Jho

Object

To reduce the invasiveness and risk of thoracic disc surgery, a transpedicular endoscopic approach has been created. The surgical technique and outcome of endoscopic transpedicular thoracic discectomy are reported.

Methods

The surgical technique of posterior transpedicular thoracic discectomy was modified to endoscopic transpedicular surgery. A 1.5-cm trocar was placed in the interlaminar space via a 2-cm transverse paramedian skin incision. At the ventral aspect of the spinal cord discectomy was performed under direct visualization by using a 70°-lens endoscope. This surgical technique was used in 25 patients. Twelve patients were men and 13 were women, aged 29 to 70 years (median 46 years). Myelopathy, with or without radiculopathy was present in 13 patients, radiculopathy in 10, and segmental pain in two. The follow-up periods ranged from 4 to 60 months (median 27 months).

In 12 of the 13 patients with myelopathy excellent improvement was shown postoperatively; the remaining patient suffered recurrence of symptoms after a motor vehicle accident three months postoperatively. In nine of the 10 patients with radiculopathy, pain was resolved completely. In one patient with right-sided hypochondral pain and two patients with segmental pain, relief was not achieved despite excellent results of discectomy demonstrated on postoperative magnetic resonance imaging. The average length of hospital stay was one night.

Conclusions

Endoscopic transpedicular thoracic discectomy was found to be a minimally invasive and effective surgical treatment.

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Hae-Dong Jho

Over the past few years, a microsurgical anterior foraminotomy technique has been developed by the author and used to achieve spinal cord decompression for the treatment of cervical spondylotic myelopathy. A 5 X 8-mm unilateral anterior foraminotomy is accomplished by resecting the uncovertebral joint via an anterior approach. Through the foraminotomy hole, the posterior osteophytes at the spinal cord canal are removed diagonally up to the beginning of the contralateral nerve root. To treat multilevel disease, a tunnel is made among the foraminotomy holes. This technique accomplishes widening of the spinal cord canal in the transverse and longitudinal axes by direct resection of the compressive lesions through the holes of unilateral anterior foraminotomies; however, it does not require bone fusion or postoperative immobilization. Postoperatively patients remain in the hospital overnight, and do not need to wear cervical braces. This new surgical technique has shown excellent clinical outcomes with fast recovery and adequate anatomical decompression in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy. The surgical technique is reported and illustrated by two of the author's cases.

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Hae-Dong Jho

Object. To minimize the invasiveness and maximize the adequacy of the decompressive procedure in thoracic discectomy, a 70° endoscope was adapted to perform transpedicular thoracic discectomy.

Methods. A posterior transpedicular approach was performed via a 2-cm transverse skin incision, aided by an operating microscope or a 0° lens endoscope. Using a 70° lens endoscope, discectomy was performed after obtaining direct visualization of the ventral aspect of the spinal cord dura mater. This surgical technique has been used in 25 patients. There were 12 men and 13 women whose ages ranged from 29 to 74 years (median 46 years). Thirteen patients experienced myelopathy, with or without radiculopathy, 10 presented with radiculopathy, and two patients suffered from segmental pain. The follow-up period ranged from 4 to 60 months (median 27 months). In 12 of 13 patients with myelopathy, excellent improvement was shown postoperatively. In the remaining patient, symptoms recurred after she was injured in a motor vehicle accident 3 months postsurgery. In nine of 10 patients with radiculopathy, pain resolved completely. In the one patient with right-sided hypochondral pain and in the two patients with segmental pain, no relief was obtained despite excellent discectomy results demonstrated on postoperative magnetic resonance images. The average length of hospital stay was overnight.

Conclusions. The use of a 70° lens endoscope through a transpedicular route has made thoracic discectomy comparable with cervical or lumbar discectomy in terms of minimal surgical invasiveness, recovery time, and complexity of the procedure.

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Hae-Dong Jho

In an effort to make thoracic discectomy simple and less invasive while using direct visualization, a 70š-angled lens endoscope has been adopted to visualize the ventral aspect of the spinal cord dura mater during microsurgical thoracic discectomy via a transpedicular approach. The patient is positioned in a 60š forwardly inclined lateral position with the side of the lesion facing upward. After radiographic corroboration of the correct level, a transpedicular approach is made using a 1.5-cm-diameter tubular retractor through a 2-cm-long paramedian transverse skin incision. With the aid of an operating microscope, the ipsilateral facet joint, including the upper portion of the pedicle, is removed using a high-speed drill, thus exposing the neural foramen, intervertebral disc, and upper portion of the pedicle leading to the vertebral bodies. When the herniated disc and bone spur have been removed laterally in relation to the spinal cord, creating a cavity under the operating microscope, a 4-mm-diameter rigid endoscope with a 70š-angled lens is mounted to an endoscope holder so that the ventral aspect of the spinal cord dura mater can be visualized directly. With the aid of direct endoscopic visualization, the disc and bone spur, which compress the spinal cord anteriorly, are pushed away toward a cavity created at the intervertebral space and are removed using a downward-biting long-armed curette. Patients with myelopathy are kept overnight in the hospital; however, those with radiculopathy are discharged home on the same day as their operation. The surgical technique and two illustrative cases are reported.

Restricted access

Hae-Dong Jho

✓ Over the past few years, a microsurgical anterior foraminotomy technique has been developed by the author and used to achieve spinal cord decompression for the treatment of cervical spondylotic myelopathy. A 5 × 8—mm unilateral anterior foraminotomy is accomplished by resecting the uncovertebral joint via an anterior approach. Through the foraminotomy hole, the posterior osteophytes at the spinal cord canal are removed diagonally up to the beginning of the contralateral nerve root. To treat multilevel disease, a tunnel is made among the foraminotomy holes. This technique accomplishes widening of the spinal cord canal in the transverse and longitudinal axes by direct resection of the compressive lesions through the holes of unilateral anterior foraminotomies; however, it does not require bone fusion or postoperative immobilization. Postoperatively patients remain in the hospital overnight, and do not need to wear cervical braces. This new surgical technique has shown excellent clinical outcomes with fast recovery and adequate anatomical decompression in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy. The surgical technique is reported and illustrated by two of the author's cases.

Restricted access

Hae-Dong Jho

✓ In an effort to make thoracic discectomy simple and less invasive while using direct visualization, a 70°-angled lens endoscope has been adopted to visualize the ventral aspect of the spinal cord dura mater during microsurgical thoracic discectomy via a transpedicular approach. The patient is positioned in a 60° forwardly inclined lateral position with the side of the lesion facing upward. After radiographic corroboration of the correct level, a transpedicular approach is made using a 1.5-cm-diameter tubular retractor through a 2-cm-long paramedian transverse skin incision. With the aid of an operating microscope, the ipsilateral facet joint, including the upper portion of the pedicle, is removed using a high-speed drill, thus exposing the neural foramen, intervertebral disc, and upper portion of the pedicle leading to the vertebral bodies. When the herniated disc and bone spur have been removed laterally in relation to the spinal cord, creating a cavity under the operating microscope, a 4-mm-diameter rigid endoscope with a 70°-angled lens is mounted to an endoscope holder so that the ventral aspect of the spinal cord dura mater can be visualized directly. With the aid of direct endoscopic visualization, the disc and bone spur, which compress the spinal cord anteriorly, are pushed away toward a cavity created at the intervertebral space and are removed using a downward-biting long-armed curette. Patients with myelopathy are kept overnight in the hospital; however, those with radiculopathy are discharged home on the same day as their operation. The surgical technique and two illustrative cases are reported.

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Hae-Dong Jho and Ricardo L. Carrau

An endoscope was used in transsphenoidal surgery and eventually replaced the operating microscope as a tool for visualization. Initially four patients underwent operation via a sublabial transseptal approach using a rigid endoscope in conjunction with an operating microscope. The 48 subsequent operations were performed through a nostril using only rigid endoscopes. Forty-four patients had pituitary adenomas and six had various other lesions. Thirteen patients had microadenomas, 16 had intrasellar macroadenomas, nine had macroadenomas with suprasellar extension, and six had invasive macroadenomas involving the cavernous sinus. Among eight patients with Cushing's disease, seven were cured. Of 17 patients with prolactinomas, 10 were cured clinically and chemically. Among 19 patients with nonsecreting adenomas, 16 underwent total resection and three subtotal resection, with residual tumor in the cavernous sinus. Postoperatively all patients who had undergone endonasal endoscopic surgery had unobstructed nasal airways with minimal discomfort. More than half of the patients required only an overnight hospitalization.