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Mark A. MacLean, Charles J. Touchette, Jae H. Han, Sean D. Christie and Gwynedd E. Pickett

OBJECTIVE

Despite efforts toward achieving gender equality in clinical trial enrollment, females are often underrepresented, and gender-specific data analysis is often unavailable. Identifying and reducing gender bias in medical decision-making and outcome reporting may facilitate equitable healthcare delivery. Gender disparity in the utilization of surgical therapy has been exemplified in the orthopedic literature through studies of total joint arthroplasty. A paucity of literature is available to guide the management of lumbar degenerative disease, which stratifies on the basis of demographic factors. The objective of this study was to systematically map and synthesize the adult surgical literature regarding gender differences in pre- and postoperative patient-reported clinical assessment scores for patients with lumbar degenerative disease (disc degeneration, disc herniation, spondylolisthesis, and spinal canal stenosis).

METHODS

A systematic scoping review was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR) guidelines. MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Registry of Controlled Trials were searched from inception to September 2018. Study characteristics including patient demographics, diagnoses, procedures, and pre- and postoperative clinical assessment scores (pain, disability, and health-related quality of life [HRQoL]) were collected.

RESULTS

Thirty articles were identified, accounting for 32,951 patients. Six studies accounted for 84% of patients; 5 of the 6 studies were published by European groups. The most common lumbar degenerative conditions were disc herniation (59.0%), disc degeneration (20.3%), and spinal canal stenosis (15.9%). The majority of studies reported worse preoperative pain (93.3%), disability (81.3%), and HRQoL (75%) among females. The remainder reported equivalent preoperative scores between males and females. The majority of studies (63.3%) did not report preoperative duration of symptoms, and this represents a limitation of the data. Eighty percent of studies found that females had worse absolute postoperative scores in at least one outcome category (pain, disability, or HRQoL). The remainder reported equivalent absolute postoperative scores between males and females. Seventy-three percent of studies reported either an equivalent or greater interval change for females.

CONCLUSIONS

Female patients undergoing surgery for lumbar degenerative disease (disc degeneration, disc herniation, spondylolisthesis, and spinal canal stenosis) have worse absolute preoperative pain, disability, and HRQoL. Following surgery, females have worse absolute pain, disability, and HRQoL, but demonstrate an equal or greater interval change compared to males. Further studies should examine gender differences in preoperative workup and clinical course.

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Neil Duggal, Gwynedd E. Pickett, Demytra K. Mitsis and Jana L. Keller

Object

Spinal arthroplasty may become the next gold standard for the treatment of degenerative cervical spine disease. This new modality must be studied rigorously to ensure in vivo efficacy and safety. The authors review the preliminary clinical experience and radiographic outcomes following insertion of the Bryan Cervical Disc Prosthesis (Medtronic Sofamor Danek, Memphis, TN).

Methods

This prospective cohort study included 26 patients undergoing single- or two-level implantation of the Bryan artificial cervical disc for treatment of cervical degenerative disc disease resulting in radiculopathy and/or myelopathy. Radiographic and clinical assessments were made preoperatively 1.5, 3 months, and at 6, 12, and up to 24 months postoperatively. The Neck Disability Index (NDI) and Short Form–36 (SF-36) questionnaires were used to assess pain and functional outcomes. Segmental sagittal rotation from C2–3 to C6–7 was measured using quantitative motion analysis software.

A total of 30 Bryan discs were placed in 26 patients. A single-level procedure was performed in 22 patients and a two-level procedure in the other four. Follow-up duration ranged from 1.5 to 27 months, with a mean duration of 12.3 months. A statistically significant improvement in the mean NDI scores was seen between pre- and late postoperative follow-up evaluations. A trend toward improvement in the SF-36 physical component was also found.

Motion was preserved in the treated spinal segments (mean range of motion 7.8°) for up to 24 months postsurgery. The relative contribution of each segment to overall spinal sagittal rotation differed depending on whether the disc was placed at C5–6 or C6–7. Overall cervical motion (C2–7) was moderately increased on late follow-up evaluations.

Conclusions

The Bryan artificial cervical disc provided in vivo functional spinal motion at the treated level. Overall cervical spinal motion was not significantly altered. Sagittal rotation did not change significantly at any level after surgery.

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Michael D. Staudt, Holger Joswig, Gwynedd E. Pickett, Keith W. MacDougall and Andrew G. Parrent

OBJECTIVE

The prevalence of trigeminal neuralgia (TN) in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS-TN) is higher than in the general population (idiopathic TN [ITN]). Glycerol rhizotomy (GR) is a percutaneous lesioning surgery commonly performed for the treatment of medically refractory TN. While treatment for acute pain relief is excellent, long-term pain relief is poorer. The object of this study was to assess the efficacy of percutaneous retrogasserian GR for the treatment of MS-TN versus ITN.

METHODS

A retrospective chart review was performed, identifying 219 patients who had undergone 401 GR procedures from 1983 to 2018 at a single academic institution. All patients were diagnosed with medically refractory MS-TN (182 procedures) or ITN (219 procedures). The primary outcome measures of interest were immediate pain relief and time to pain recurrence following initial and repeat GR procedures. Secondary outcomes included medication usage and presence of periprocedural hypesthesia.

RESULTS

The initial pain-free response rate was similar between groups (p = 0.726): MS-TN initial GR 89.6%; MS-TN repeat GR 91.9%; ITN initial GR 89.6%; ITN repeat GR 87.0%. The median time to recurrence after initial GR was similar between MS-TN (2.7 ± 1.3 years) and ITN (2.1 ± 0.6 years) patients (p = 0.87). However, there was a statistically significant difference in the time to recurrence after repeat GR between MS-TN (2.3 ± 0.5 years) and ITN patients (1.2 ± 0.2 years; p < 0.05). The presence of periprocedural hypesthesia was highly predictive of pain-free survival (p < 0.01).

CONCLUSIONS

Patients with MS-TN achieve meaningful pain relief following GR, with an efficacy comparable to that following GR in patients with ITN. Initial and subsequent GR procedures are equally efficacious.

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Gwynedd E. Pickett, Demytra K. Mitsis, Lali H. Sekhon, William R. Sears and Neil Duggal

Object

Cervical arthroplasty offers the promise of maintaining motion of the functional spinal unit (FSU) after anterior cervical discectomy. The impact of cervical arthroplasty on sagittal alignment of the FSU needs to be addressed, together with its effect on overall sagittal balance of the cervical spine.

Methods

The authors prospectively reviewed radiographic and clinical outcomes in 14 patients who received the Bryan Cervical Disc prosthesis (Medtronic Sofamor Danek, Memphis, TN), for whom early (< 6 months) and late (6–24 months) follow-up data were available. Static and dynamic radiographs were measured by hand and computer to determine the angles formed by the endplates of the natural disc preoperatively, those formed by the shells of the implanted prosthesis, the angle of the FSU, and the C2–7 Cobb angle. The range of motion (ROM) was also determined radiographically, whereas clinical outcomes were assessed using the Neck Disability Index (NDI), and Short Form–36 (SF-36) questionnaires.

The ROM was preserved following surgery, with a mean preoperative sagittal rotation angle of 8.96°, which was not significantly different from the late postoperative value of 8.25°. When compared with the preoperative disc space angle, the shell endplate angle in the neutral position became kyphotic in the early and late postoperative periods (mean change −3.8° in the late follow-up period; p = 0.0035). The FSU angles also became significantly more kyphotic post-operatively, with a mean change of −6° (p = 0.0006). The Cobb angles varied widely preoperatively and did not change significantly after surgery. There was no statistical correlation between the NDI and SF-36 outcomes and cervical kyphosis.

Conclusions

Cervical arthroplasty preserves motion of the FSU. Both the endplate angle of the treated disc space and the angle of the FSU became kyphotic after insertion of the Bryan prosthesis. The overall sagittal balance of the cervical spine, however, was preserved.

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Gwynedd E. Pickett, Lali H. S. Sekhon, William R. Sears and Neil Duggal

Object

Spinal arthroplasty is becoming more widely performed in the treatment of degenerative cervical disc disease. Although this new technology may offer benefits over arthrodesis, it also requires that the surgeon acquire new operative techniques, and new potential complications are introduced. To determine the incidence and distribution of perioperative complications, the authors analyzed their early data obtained in a series of patients treated with the Bryan Cervical Disc prosthesis.

Methods

The authors prospectively recorded operative data, complications, and clinical and radiographic outcome data in all patients treated with Bryan prosthesis–based arthroplasty at two tertiary care centers since 2001. Patients underwent standard anterior cervical discectomy followed by one- to three-level arthroplasty.

Ninety-six discs were implanted in 74 patients. The perioperative complication rate was 6.2% per treated level. In one patient a retropharyngeal hematoma developed, requiring evacuation. Neurological worsening occurred in three patients. Intraoperative migration of the prosthesis was observed in one two-level case, whereas delayed migration occurred in one patient with postoperative segmental kyphosis. In another patient with severe postoperative segmental kyphosis, revision was required with a customized lordotic prosthesis. Heterotopic ossification and spontaneous fusion occurred in two cases; motion was preserved in the remaining 94 prostheses. Partial dislocation of the prosthesis in extension occurred in one patient with preoperative segmental hypermobility, the first reported failure of a Bryan prosthesis. Twenty-five percent of patients reported neck and shoulder pain during the late follow-up period. There was a trend toward increased kyphosis of the C2–7 curvature postoperatively.

Conclusions

The Bryan prosthesis was effective in maintaining spinal motion. Major perioperative and device-related complications were infrequent.