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Gordon H. Baltuch, Jean-Pierre Farmer, Kathleen Meagher-Villemure, Augustin M. O'Gorman and José L. Montes

✓ The authors present the case of a 10-year-old boy admitted for evaluation of a generalized seizure and a history of headaches. Computerized tomography (CT) and gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging demonstrated a large nonhomogeneous contrast-enhancing mass of the left frontal lobe, with a large cystic component. Cerebral angiography revealed the lesion to be highly vascular and fed entirely by the internal carotid artery system. The patient underwent craniotomy and the lesion was completely removed. Neuropathological study revealed that the tumor was a ganglioglioma. On review of the literature, it was found that gangliogliomas often present in the second and third decade, are known to have cystic components, and are contrast-enhancing on CT and MR imaging; however, they are classically known to be avascular on angiography. This case of a markedly vascular ganglioglioma emphasizes that these tumors should be included in the differential diagnosis of vascular supratentorial lesions.

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Frederick L. Hitti, Ashwin G. Ramayya, Brendan J. McShane, Andrew I. Yang, Kerry A. Vaughan and Gordon H. Baltuch

OBJECTIVE

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an effective treatment for several movement disorders, including Parkinson’s disease (PD). While this treatment has been available for decades, studies on long-term patient outcomes have been limited. Here, the authors examined survival and long-term outcomes of PD patients treated with DBS.

METHODS

The authors conducted a retrospective analysis using medical records of their patients to identify the first 400 consecutive patients who underwent DBS implantation at their institution from 1999 to 2007. The medical record was used to obtain baseline demographics and neurological status. The authors performed survival analyses using Kaplan-Meier estimation and multivariate regression using Cox proportional hazards modeling. Telephone surveys were used to determine long-term outcomes.

RESULTS

Demographics for the cohort of patients with PD (n = 320) were as follows: mean age of 61 years, 70% male, 27% of patients had at least 1 medical comorbidity (coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, diabetes mellitus, atrial fibrillation, or deep vein thrombosis). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis on a subset of patients with at least 10 years of follow-up (n = 200) revealed a survival probability of 51% (mean age at death 73 years). Using multivariate regression, the authors found that age at implantation (HR 1.02, p = 0.01) and male sex (HR 1.42, p = 0.02) were predictive of reduced survival. Number of medical comorbidities was not significantly associated with survival (p > 0.5). Telephone surveys were completed by 40 surviving patients (mean age 55.1 ± 6.4 years, 72.5% male, 95% subthalamic nucleus DBS, mean follow-up 13.0 ± 1.7 years). Tremor responded best to DBS (72.5% of patients improved), while other motor symptoms remained stable. Ability to conduct activities of daily living (ADLs) remained stable (dressing, 78% of patients; running errands, 52.5% of patients) or worsened (preparing meals, 50% of patients). Patient satisfaction, however, remained high (92.5% happy with DBS, 95% would recommend DBS, and 75% felt it provided symptom control).

CONCLUSIONS

DBS for PD is associated with a 10-year survival rate of 51%. Survey data suggest that while DBS does not halt disease progression in PD, it provides durable symptomatic relief and allows many individuals to maintain ADLs over long-term follow-up greater than 10 years. Furthermore, patient satisfaction with DBS remains high at long-term follow-up.

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Frederick L. Hitti, Kerry A. Vaughan, Ashwin G. Ramayya, Brendan J. McShane and Gordon H. Baltuch

OBJECTIVE

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has revolutionized the treatment of neurological disease, but its therapeutic efficacy is limited by the lifetime of the implantable pulse generator (IPG) batteries. At the end of the battery life, IPG replacement surgery is required. New IPGs with rechargeable batteries (RC-IPGs) have recently been introduced and allow for decreased reoperation rates for IPG replacements. The authors aimed to examine the merits and limitations of these devices.

METHODS

The authors reviewed the medical records of patients who underwent DBS implantation at their institution. RC-IPGs were placed either during initial DBS implantation or during an IPG change. A cost analysis was performed that compared RC-IPGs with standard IPGs, and telephone patient surveys were conducted to assess patient satisfaction.

RESULTS

The authors identified 206 consecutive patients from 2011 to 2016 who underwent RC-IPG placement (mean age 61 years; 67 women, 33%). Parkinson’s disease was the most common indication for DBS (n = 144, 70%), followed by essential tremor (n = 41, 20%), dystonia (n = 13, 6%), depression (n = 5, 2%), multiple sclerosis tremor (n = 2, 1%), and epilepsy (n = 1, 0.5%). DBS leads were typically placed bilaterally (n = 192, 93%) and targeted the subthalamic nucleus (n = 136, 66%), ventral intermediate nucleus of the thalamus (n = 43, 21%), internal globus pallidus (n = 21, 10%), ventral striatum (n = 5, 2%), or anterior nucleus of the thalamus (n = 1, 0.5%). RC-IPGs were inserted at initial DBS implantation in 123 patients (60%), while 83 patients (40%) were converted to RC-IPGs during an IPG replacement surgery. The authors found that RC-IPG implantation resulted in $60,900 of cost savings over the course of 9 years. Furthermore, patient satisfaction was high with RC-IPG implantation. Overall, 87.3% of patients who responded to the survey were satisfied with their device, and only 6.7% found the rechargeable component difficult to use. In patients who were switched from a standard IPG to RC-IPG, the majority who responded (70.3%) preferred the rechargeable IPG.

CONCLUSIONS

RC-IPGs can provide DBS patients with long-term therapeutic benefit while minimizing the need for battery replacement surgery. The authors have implanted rechargeable stimulators in 206 patients undergoing DBS surgery, and here they demonstrate the cost-effectiveness and high patient satisfaction associated with this procedure.

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Daniel R. Kramer, Casey H. Halpern, Dana L. Buonacore, Kathryn R. McGill, Howard I. Hurtig, Jurg L. Jaggi and Gordon H. Baltuch

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is the treatment of choice for otherwise healthy patients with advanced Parkinson disease who are suffering from disabling dyskinesias and motor fluctuations related to dopaminergic therapy. As DBS is an elective procedure, it is essential to minimize the risk of morbidity. Further, precision in targeting deep brain structures is critical to optimize efficacy in controlling motor features. The authors have already established an operational checklist in an effort to minimize errors made during DBS surgery. Here, they set out to standardize a strict, step-by-step approach to the DBS surgery used at their institution, including preoperative evaluation, the day of surgery, and the postoperative course. They provide careful instruction on Leksell frame assembly and placement as well as the determination of indirect coordinates derived from MR images used to target deep brain structures. Detailed descriptions of the operative procedure are provided, outlining placement of the stereotactic arc as well as determination of the appropriate bur hole location, lead placement using electrophysiology, and placement of the internal pulse generator. The authors also include their approach to preventing postoperative morbidity. They believe that a strategic, step-by-step approach to DBS surgery combined with a standardized checklist will help to minimize operating room mistakes that can compromise targeting and increase the risk of complication.

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Jared M. Pisapia, Casey H. Halpern, Noel N. Williams, Thomas A. Wadden, Gordon H. Baltuch and Sherman C. Stein

Object

Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is the gold standard treatment for morbid obesity, although failure rates may be high, particularly in patients with a BMI > 50 kg/m2. With improved understanding of the neuropsychiatric basis of obesity, deep brain stimulation (DBS) offers a less invasive and reversible alternative to available surgical treatments. In this decision analysis, the authors determined the success rate at which DBS would be equivalent to the two most common bariatric surgeries.

Methods

Medline searches were performed for studies of laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB), laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB), and DBS for movement disorders. Bariatric surgery was considered successful if postoperative excess weight loss exceeded 45% at 1-year follow-up. Using complication and success rates from the literature, the authors constructed a decision analysis model for treatment by LAGB, LRYGB, DBS, or no surgical treatment. A sensitivity analysis in which major parameters were systematically varied within their 95% CIs was used.

Results

Fifteen studies involving 3489 and 3306 cases of LAGB and LRYGB, respectively, and 45 studies involving 2937 cases treated with DBS were included. The operative successes were 0.30 (95% CI 0.247–0.358) for LAGB and 0.968 (95% CI 0.967–0.969) for LRYGB. Sensitivity analysis revealed utility of surgical complications in LRYGB, probability of surgical complications in DBS, and success rate of DBS as having the greatest influence on outcomes. At no values did LAGB result in superior outcomes compared with other treatments.

Conclusions

Deep brain stimulation must achieve a success rate of 83% to be equivalent to bariatric surgery. This high-threshold success rate is probably due to the reported success rate of LRYGB, despite its higher complication rate (33.4%) compared with DBS (19.4%). The results support further research into the role of DBS for the treatment of obesity.

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Ioannis Mavridis and Sophia Anagnostopoulou

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Atsushi Umemura, Jurg L. Jaggi, Howard I. Hurtig, Andrew D. Siderowf, Amy Colcher, Matthew B. Stern and Gordon H. Baltuch

Object. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been advocated as a more highly effective and less morbidity-producing alternative to ablative stereotactic surgery in the treatment of medically intractable movement disorders. Nevertheless, the exact incidence of morbidity and mortality associated with the procedure is not well known. In this study the authors reviewed the surgical morbidity and mortality rates in a large series of DBS operations.

Methods. The authors retrospectively analyzed surgical complications in their consecutive series of 179 DBS implantations in 109 patients performed by a single surgical team at one center between July 1998 and April 2002. The mean follow-up period was 20 months.

There were 16 serious adverse events related to surgery in 14 patients (12.8%). There were two perioperative deaths (1.8%), one caused by pulmonary embolism and the second due to aspiration pneumonia. The other adverse events were two pulmonary embolisms, two subcortical hemorrhages, two chronic subdural hematomas, one venous infarction, one seizure, four infections, one cerebrospinal fluid leak, and one skin erosion. The incidence of permanent sequelae was 4.6% (five of 109 patients). The incidence of device-related complications, such as infection or skin erosion, was also 4.6% (five of 109 patients).

Conclusions. There is a significant incidence of adverse events associated with the DBS procedure. Nevertheless, DBS is clinically effective in well-selected patients and should be seriously considered as a treatment option for patients with medically refractory movement disorders.

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Jason M. Schwalb, Howard A. Riina, Brett Skolnick, Jurg L. Jaggi, Tanya Simuni and Gordon H. Baltuch

✓ The treatment of essential tremor with thalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS) is considered to be more effective and to cause less morbidity than treatment with thalamotomy. Nonetheless, implantation of an indwelling electrode, connectors, and a generator is associated with specific types of morbidity. The authors describe three patients who required revision of their DBS systems due to lead breakage. The connector between the DBS electrode and the extension wire, which connects to the subclavicular pulse generator, was originally placed subcutaneously in the cervical region to decrease the risk of erosion through the scalp and to improve cosmesis. Three patients presented with fractured DBS electrodes that were located in the cervical region near the connector, necessitating reoperation with stereotactic retargeting and placement of a new intracranial electrode. At reoperation, the connectors were placed subgaleally over the parietal region.

Management of these cases has led to modifications in the operative procedure designed to improve the durability of DBS systems. The authors recommend that surgeons avoid placing the connection between the DBS electrode and the extension wire in the cervical region because patient movement can cause microfractures in the electrode. Such microfractures require intracranial revision, which may be associated with a higher risk of morbidity than the initial operation. The authors also recommend considering prophylactic relocation of the connectors from the cervical area to the subgaleal parietal region to decrease the risk of future DBS electrode fracture, which would necessitate a more lengthy procedure to revise the intracranial electrode.

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Kelvin L. Chou, Mark S. Forman, John Q. Trojanowski, Howard I. Hurtig and Gordon H. Baltuch

✓ The authors report the clinicopathological findings in a patient in whom levodopa-responsive parkinsonism developed at 45 years of age. The patient experienced asymmetrical onset of symptoms, sustained benefit from levodopa, and motor fluctuations and dyskinesias, but there were no prominent autonomic, cerebellar, or pyramidal signs. He was diagnosed clinically with Parkinson disease (PD) and underwent bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery 9 years after symptom onset. He did not respond to stimulation or medication postoperatively, however, and died 12 weeks after surgery of repeated aspiration pneumonias. Postmortem examination revealed neuron loss in the substantia nigra and basal ganglia, and numerous α-synuclein—positive glial cytoplasmic inclusions in the subcortical nuclei, cerebellum, and brainstem, findings that established a neuropathological diagnosis of multiple system atrophy (MSA). Furthermore, there was an atypical and robust inflammatory reaction, as well as numerous glial cytoplasmic inclusions surrounding both DBS electrode termination sites. The authors speculate that the presence of α-synuclein in the striatum, combined with the inflammation surrounding the electrodes, contributed to the ineffectiveness of stimulation and dopaminergic medications postoperatively. This case demonstrates the ineffectiveness of DBS in MSA, even when the patient is responsive to levodopa, and emphasizes the need for diagnostic modalities that can be used to distinguish PD from MSA and other parkinsonian syndromes in which the levodopa response pattern is typical of PD.

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Uzma Samadani, Atsushi Umemura, Jurg L. Jaggi, Amy Colcher, Eric L. Zager and Gordon H. Baltuch

✓ Thalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been demonstrated to be effective for the treatment of parkinsonian or essential tremor. To date, however, few data exist to support the application of this method to treat midbrain tremor.

A 24-year-old right-handed man underwent radiosurgery and subsequent resection of a recurrently hemorrhaging cavernous angioma located in the left side of the midbrain. The surgery exacerbated severe choreoathetotic resting and action tremors of his right extremities and trunk. The patient underwent placement of a deep brain stimulator into the left ventral intermediate nucleus of the thalamus (Vim). Postoperatively, decreased truncal ataxia and right-sided choreoathetotic tremor were demonstrated, with a 57% increase in dexterity as measured by task testing.

The authors demonstrate that DBS can be an effective treatment modality for disabling tremor after resection of a midbrain cavernous angioma.