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Nader Sanai, Michael E. Sughrue, Gopal Shangari, Kenny Chung, Mitchel S. Berger and Michael W. McDermott

Object

Although meningiomas are commonly found along the supratentorial convexity, the risk profile associated with this subset of lesions in the modern neurosurgical era is unknown.

Methods

The authors retrospectively reviewed the clinical course of patients with supratentorial convexity meningiomas treated during the past 10 years. All patients had undergone MR imaging within 72 hours after surgery and at least 1 year of clinical follow-up. Patients with multiple meningiomas, hemangiopericytomas, malignant meningiomas, or tumor-prone syndromes were excluded from analysis.

Results

Between 1997 and 2007, 141 consecutive patients (median age 48 years, range 18–95 years) underwent resection of a supratentorial convexity meningioma. The most common signs or symptoms at presentation were headache (48%), seizures (34%), and weakness (21%). The mean tumor volume was 146.3 cm3 (range 1–512 cm3). There were no intraoperative complications or deaths. Medical or neurosurgical morbidity was noted in the postoperative course of 14 patients, equating to a 10% overall complication rate. Postoperative surgical complications included hematoma requiring evacuation, CSF leakage, and operative site infection. Medical complications included pulmonary embolus and deep vein thrombosis requiring treatment. A Simpson Grade 0 or 1 resection was achieved in 122 patients (87%). One hundred six tumors (75%) were WHO Grade I, whereas 35 (25%) were WHO Grade II. The median clinical follow-up was 2.9 years (range 1–10 years), and the median radiographic follow-up was 3.7 years (range 1–10 years). Six patients (4%) had radiographic evidence of tumor recurrence, with 3 (2%) undergoing repeat resection.

Conclusions

With the conservative recommendations for surgery for asymptomatic meningiomas and the advent of radiosurgery during the past 10 years, microsurgically treated convexity meningiomas are now typically large in size. Nevertheless, the patient's clinical course following microsurgical removal of these lesions is expected to be uncomplicated. The authors' findings provide a defined risk profile associated with the resection of supratentorial convexity meningiomas in the modern neurosurgical era.

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Michael E. Sughrue, Nader Sanai, Gopal Shangari, Andrew T. Parsa, Mitchel S. Berger and Michael W. McDermott

Object

Despite an increased understanding of the biology of malignant meningioma tumor progression, there is a paucity of published clinical data on factors affecting outcomes following treatment for these lesions. The authors present the largest case series to date dealing with these tumors, providing analysis of 63 patients.

Methods

The authors identified all patients undergoing resection of WHO Grade III tumors at their institution over a 16-year period. They analyzed clinical data from these patients, and performed Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses to determine the impact of different clinical characteristics and different treatment modalities on survival following initial and repeat surgery for these lesions.

Results

Sixty-three patients met inclusion criteria and were analyzed further. The median clinical follow-up time was 5 years (range 1–22 years). The 2-, 5-, and 10-year overall survival rates following initial operation were 82, 61, and 40%, respectively. Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated a marked survival benefit with repeat operation (53 vs 25 months, p = 0.02). Interestingly, patients treated with near-total resection experienced improved overall survival when compared with patients treated with gross-total resection at initial (p = 0.035) and repeat operations (p = 0.005). Twelve (19%) of 63 patients experienced significant neurological morbidity referable to the resection of their tumors.

Conclusions

Surgery is an effective treatment for WHO Grade III meningiomas at presentation and recurrence; however, aggressive attempts to achieve gross-total resection can be associated with significant neurological risk.

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Editorial

Malignant meningiomas

Roberto C. Heros

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Michael E. Sughrue, Martin J. Rutkowski, Gopal Shangari, H. Quinn Chang, Andrew T. Parsa, Mitchel S. Berger and Michael W. McDermott

Object

While the surgical and neurological risks of meningioma surgery have been reported, much less effort has been devoted to studying the rates of serious medical complications following such a procedure. The authors performed a review of 834 patients who underwent craniotomy for meningioma at their institution and analyzed the rate of major cardiac, pulmonary, renal, and hepatic complications.

Methods

The authors identified all patients between 1993 and 2007 who underwent craniotomy for meningioma. Clinical information was reconstructed using patient medical records, medication records, radiological data, and pathological specimens from both the author institution and outside medical facilities. Stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to test the association between the dependent variable (rate of medical complications) and all covariates with a p < 0.2 on univariate testing.

Results

Fifty-seven patients (6.8%) experienced 61 serious medical complications following surgery for meningioma. Four patients died of medical complications. The most common complication was pneumonia, followed by renal dysfunction, arrhythmia, and deep venous thrombosis and/or pulmonary embolus. The development of a new or worsened neurological deficit (p < 0.00001), an age > 65 years (p < 0.03), hypertension (p < 0.02), and being on > 2 cardiac medications prior to surgery (p < 0.004) all demonstrated significantly increased rates of medical complications on univariate analysis. On multivariate analysis, only a new or worsened neurological deficit remained a significant risk factor for the occurrence of serious medical complications (p < 0.00001).

Conclusions

Overall, the authors found that the rate of clinically detected serious medical complications is relatively low in this population (6.8%), given the duration and complexity of the meningioma operations, and is strongly linked to the subsequent development of significant medical complications. This information may be useful to surgeons in discussing the morbidity of surgery during the informed consent process.

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Michael E. Sughrue, Martin J. Rutkowski, Gopal Shangari, Andrew T. Parsa, Mitchel S. Berger and Michael W. McDermott

Object

The management of parasagittal and falcine meningiomas centers around the relationship between the tumor and the venous anatomy of the superior sagittal sinus (SSS) and the bridging veins. The present study aims to address surgical outcomes in a focused cohort of these patients for which there is not clinical equipoise between radiosurgery and transcranial resection.

Methods

The clinical outcomes of patients undergoing surgical removal of parasagittal and falcine meningiomas at the authors' institution over an 18-year period were analyzed. Analysis was limited to patients with large, symptomatic, or rapidly growing tumors, for whom radiosurgery was not a good option. Tumor control was assessed using Kaplan-Meier analysis, and specific attention was paid to the relationship between the tumor and the SSS, and its impact on tumor control and outcome.

Results

The authors identified 135 patients with large, symptomatic, and/or growing parasagittal/falcine meningiomas who underwent resection at their institution between 1991 and 2007. The median length of follow-up was 7.6 years (range 1.7–18.6 years). The SSS was found to be invaded in 61 of 135 cases. In 6 cases the sinus was completely occluded. In 33 of the remaining 55 cases, the tumor invading the sinus was able to be removed with simple microsurgical techniques. There was no difference in rates of tumor control in patients who received subtotal resection for a WHO Grade I tumor, followed by close observation, compared with those undergoing gross-total resection, primarily because no cases were observed in which the tumor remnant in the SSS demonstrated interval growth on serial imaging studies. Of the patients in this series, 19% experienced at least one neurological, medical, or surgical complication.

Conclusions

Importantly, these data provide a more modern estimate of the expected outcomes that can be obtained with treatment of these tumors, in which a combination of image guidance, advanced microsurgical tools, and conformal radiation treatments is used.

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Michael E. Sughrue, Ari J. Kane, Gopal Shangari, Martin J. Rutkowski, Michael W. McDermott, Mitchel S. Berger and Andrew T. Parsa

Object

In 1957, Simpson published a seminal paper defining the risk factors for recurrence following surgical treatment of intracranial meningiomas. Given that Simpson's study was published more than 50 years ago, preceding image guidance technology and MR imaging, the authors reviewed their own experience with surgical treatment of Grade I meningiomas to determine if Simpson's grading scale is still relevant to modern neurosurgical practice.

Methods

From this cohort, the authors evaluated all patients undergoing craniotomy for resection of a histologically proven WHO Grade I meningioma as their initial therapy. Clinical information was retrospectively reconstructed using patient medical records and radiological data. Recurrence analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method.

Results

The 5-year recurrence/progression-free survival for all patients receiving a Simpson Grade I, II, III, or IV resection was 95, 85, 88, and 81%, respectively (p = not significant, log-rank test). Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed no significant difference in recurrence-free survival between patients receiving a Simpson Grade I, II, III, or IV resection. Analysis limited to meningiomas arising from the skull base (excluding the cavernous sinus) similarly found no significant benefit to Simpson Grade I or II resection, and the survival curves were nearly superimposed.

Conclusions

In this study of a cohort of patients undergoing surgery for WHO Grade I meningiomas, the authors demonstrate that the benefit of more aggressive attempts to resect the tumor with dura and underlying bone was negligible compared with simply removing the entire tumor, or even leaving small amounts of tumor attached to critical structures. The authors believe that these data reflect an evolution in the nature of meningioma surgery over the past 2 decades, and bring into question the relevance of using Simpson's grading system as the sole predictor of recurrence.

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Michael E. Sughrue, Ari J. Kane, Gopal Shangari, Andrew T. Parsa, Mitchel S. Berger and Michael W. McDermott

Object

The study of patients with multiple neoplasms can yield valuable insight into the common pathogenesis of both diseases, as well as identify more subtle risk factors that might not be as readily apparent otherwise. The authors present an analysis of the prevalence of previously diagnosed extracranial malignancies at the time of meningioma diagnosis in 1228 patients evaluated at a single institution.

Methods

All patients who underwent evaluation and/or treatment for meningioma between 1991 and 2007 at the authors' institution were identified. The intake history and physical were assessed for any history of extracranial malignancy. Using the National Cancer Institute data, the authors calculated an expected cancer prevalence for their meningioma patient population, and compared this derived value to the observed rate of these cancers in this population.

Results

There were 1228 patients included in this study. A total of 50 patients (4.1%) with newly diagnosed meningioma had a history of an extracranial malignant tumor at the time of their initial meningioma diagnosis. In general, most malignancies did not differ in prevalence from their expected frequency in the population in the present study. Notable exceptions were acute leukemia (p < 0.0001), and papillary thyroid carcinoma, which had a prevalence 2.5 times that expected in this population (p < 0.05).

Conclusions

The data support a growing body of evidence suggesting an epidemiological link between papillary carcinoma of the thyroid and meningioma. Although the link between these tumors is not immediately apparent, it is possible that further exploration will yield interesting insight into the pathogenesis of both diseases.

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Michael E. Sughrue, Martin J. Rutkowski, C. Jared Chen, Gopal Shangari, Ari J. Kane, Andrew T. Parsa, Mitchel S. Berger and Michael W. McDermott

Object

Cushing and Eisenhardt were the first to describe sphenoid wing meningiomas in detail, categorizing globoid tumors into 3 groups: 1) medial; 2) middle; and 3) lateral. The authors review their experience with resection of sphenoid wing meningiomas at a single center, to examine whether this classification predicts clinical presentation and postsurgical outcome.

Methods

All patients undergoing resection of sphenoid wing meningioma at the authors' institution over a 9-year period were identified. Clinical data were compared from patients with tumors arising at different points along the sphenoid wing to determine if these tumors behaved differently in terms of symptoms, radiographic characteristics, and postsurgical outcome.

Results

A total of 56 patients underwent microsurgical resection for sphenoid wing meningioma during this period. The rates of optic canal invasion (medial 50% vs middle 5% vs lateral 0%; p < 0.0001, chi-square test), supraclinoid internal carotid artery encasement (medial 32% vs middle 5% vs lateral 0%; p < 0.01, chi-square test), and middle cerebral artery encasement (medial 45% vs middle 24% vs lateral 0%; p < 0.01, chi-square test) were all highest with medial-third tumors. New or worsened neurological deficits occurred in 10 (19%) of 56 patients. Of all the imaging characteristics studied, only location of the tumor along the medial third of the sphenoid wing significantly predicted an increased rate of new or worsened neurological deficit (OR 2.7, p < 0.05).

Conclusions

The authors report outcomes in a large series of sphenoid wing meningiomas that were treated using modern surgical techniques.

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James B. Elder and E. Antonio Chiocca

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Michael E. Sughrue, Martin J. Rutkowski, Edward F. Chang, Gopal Shangari, Ari J. Kane, Michael W. McDermott, Mitchel S. Berger and Andrew T. Parsa

Object

Seizures in the perioperative period are a well-recognized clinical entity in the setting of brain tumor surgery. At present, the suitability of antiepileptic prophylaxis in patients following brain tumor surgery is unclear, especially in those without prior seizures. Given the paucity of tumor-type and site-specific data, the authors evaluated the incidence of postoperative seizures in patients with convexity meningiomas and no prior seizures.

Methods

The authors identified 180 patients with no preoperative history of seizures who underwent resection of a convexity meningioma. Some patients received antiepileptic prophylaxis for 7 days postoperatively while others did not, based on the practice patterns of different attendings. The rates of clinically evident seizures in the first 3–4 weeks after surgery were compared.

Results

Patients who received antiepilepsy drugs (129 patients) did not significantly differ from those who did not (51 patients) in terms of age, sex, WHO tumor grade, extent of resection, rate of previous cranial surgery or radiation therapies, or use of preoperative embolization. There was a single new postoperative seizure in the entire cohort, yielding a new seizure rate of 1.9% in patients not on antiepileptic prophylaxis compared with 0% in patients on antiepileptics (p = not significant).

Conclusions

While it is thought that the routine use of prophylactic antiepileptics may prevent new seizures in patients undergoing surgery for a convexity meningioma, the rate of new seizures in untreated patients is probably very low. Data in this study call into question whether the cost and side effects of these medications are worth the small benefit their administration may confer.