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Julia R. Schneider, Amrit K. Chiluwal, Mohsen Nouri, Giyarpuram N. Prashant, and Amir R. Dehdashti

OBJECTIVE

The retrosigmoid (RS) approach is a classic route used to access deep-seated brainstem cavernous malformation (CM). The angle of access is limited, so alternatives such as the transpetrosal presigmoid retrolabyrinthine (TPPR) approach have been used to overcome this limitation. Here, the authors evaluated a modification to the RS approach, horizontal fissure dissection by using the RS transhorizontal (RSTH) approach.

METHODS

Relevant clinical parameters were evaluated in 9 patients who underwent resection of lateral pontine CM. Cadaveric dissection was performed to compare the TPPR approach and the RSTH approach.

RESULTS

Five patients underwent the TPPR approach, and 4 underwent the RSTH approach. Dissection of the horizontal fissure allowed for access to the infratrigeminal safe entry zone, with a direct trajectory to the middle cerebellar peduncle similar to that used in TPPR exposure. Operative time was longer in the TPPR group. All patients had a modified Rankin Scale score ≤ 2 at the last follow-up. Cadaveric dissection confirmed increased anteroposterior working angle and middle cerebellar peduncle exposure with the addition of horizontal fissure dissection.

CONCLUSIONS

The RSTH approach leads to a direct lateral path to lateral pontine CM, with similar efficacy and shorter operative time compared with more extensive skull base exposure. The RSTH approach could be considered a valid alternative for resection of selected pontine CM.

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Carlito Lagman, Vera Ong, Thien Nguyen, Yasmine Alkhalid, John P. Sheppard, Prasanth Romiyo, Daniel Azzam, Giyarpuram N. Prashant, Reza Jahan, and Isaac Yang

OBJECTIVE

Meningiomas that appear hypervascular on neuroimaging could be amenable to preoperative embolization. However, methods for measuring hypervascularity have not been described, nor has the benefit of preoperative embolization been adjudicated. The objective of this study was to show a relationship between flow void volume (measured on MRI) and intraoperative estimated blood loss (EBL) in nonembolized meningiomas.

METHODS

The authors performed volumetric analyses of 51 intracranial meningiomas (21 preoperatively embolized) resected at their institution. Through the use of image segmentation software and a voxel-based segmentation method, flow void volumes were measured on T2-weighted MR images. This metric was named the Meningioma Vascularity Index (MVI). The primary outcomes were intraoperative EBL and perioperative blood transfusion.

RESULTS

In the nonembolized group, the MVI correlated with intraoperative EBL when controlling for tumor volume (r = 0.55, p = 0.002). The MVI also correlated with perioperative blood transfusion (point-biserial correlation [rpb] = 0.57, p = 0.001). A greater MVI was associated with an increased risk of blood transfusion (odds ratio [OR] 5.79, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.15–29.15) and subtotal resection (OR 7.64, 95% CI 1.74–33.58). In the embolized group, those relationships were not found. There were no significant differences in MVI, intraoperative EBL, or blood transfusion across groups.

CONCLUSIONS

This study clearly shows a relationship between MVI and intraoperative EBL in nonembolized meningiomas when controlling for tumor volume. The MVI is a potential biomarker for tumors that would benefit from embolization.