Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 7 of 7 items for

  • Author or Editor: Giuseppe Mirone x
  • Refine by Access: all x
Clear All Modify Search
Open access

Alessia Imperato, Alessandra Marini, Pietro Spennato, Giuseppe Mirone, and Giuseppe Cinalli

The authors present a pediatric case of a pineoblastoma treated with gross-total removal through an occipital interhemispheric transtentorial approach (OITA). The child presented with acute hydrocephalus that was treated by endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) and tumor biopsy through a single burr hole. Histology revealed a pineoblastoma. Microsurgical total removal was performed 3 months after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. OITA was chosen on the basis of the tumor’s location below the Herophilus-Galen line of sight. In this video, the authors show the positioning, the operating devices, the approach, and the microsurgical dissection, indicating all the neurovascular structures encountered.

The video can be found here: https://stream.cadmore.media/r10.3171/2021.4.FOCVID2122.

Restricted access

Salvatore Chibbaro, Giuseppe Mirone, Orphée Makiese, and Bernard George

Object

The multilevel oblique corpectomy (MOC) allows widening of the spinal canal and foramen trough via an anterolateral access to the cervical spine with control of the vertebral artery and does not require vertebral stabilization or fusion. In the present study, the authors' goal was to demonstrate the long-term efficacy and safety of MOC in the treatment of selected cases of spondylotic myelopathy.

Methods

The authors conducted a prospective study in a series of 268 patients who underwent MOC for cervical spondylotic myelopathy over a 14-year period. Preoperative and postoperative neurological functioning were evaluated with the modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association scale. Spinal stability was assessed in all patients on serial plain and dynamic cervical radiographs at the last follow-up. The degree of canal expansion after MOC was also measured using the spinal canal/vertebral body ratio, and directly by measuring the diameter of osseous canal on pre- and postoperative CT scans and high-resolution MR images.

Results

At a mean follow-up of 96 months, clinical improvement was recorded in 86.6% of patients with a global recovery rate of 87.6%, clinical stability in 8%, and worsening in 5%. Long-term spinal stability was demonstrated in 98% of patients.

Conclusions

Multilevel oblique corpectomy was demonstrated to be a safe procedure that provided good results in terms of improved functional status and long-term spinal stability.

Open access

Giuseppe Cinalli, Maria Rosaria Scala, Alessandra Marini, Alessia Imperato, Giuseppe Mirone, and Pietro Spennato

In this video, the authors present an interhemispheric transcallosal transchoroidal approach to a pineal mass in a 15-year-old boy. He received emergency endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV), then an endoscopic biopsy that revealed an immature teratoma. Surgical removal was selected. The mass was located very high in the posterior third ventricle, hidden behind the splenium of the corpus callosum and the vein of Galen, so an interhemispheric transcallosal approach followed by a complete dissection of the whole choroidal fissure was chosen and allowed complete removal of the tumor. Microsurgical dissection is presented, showing clearly in detail all the neurovascular structures encountered.

The video can be found here: https://stream.cadmore.media/r10.3171/2021.4.FOCVID2126.

Free access

Giuseppe Cinalli, Alessia Imperato, Giuseppe Mirone, Giuliana Di Martino, Giancarlo Nicosia, Claudio Ruggiero, Ferdinando Aliberti, and Pietro Spennato

OBJECTIVE

Neuroendoscopic removal of intraventricular tumors is difficult and time consuming because of the lack of an effective decompression system that can be used through the working channel of the endoscope. The authors report on the utilization of an endoscopic ultrasonic aspirator in the resection of intraventricular tumors.

METHODS

Twelve pediatric patients (10 male, 2 female), ages 1–15 years old, underwent surgery via a purely endoscopic approach using a Gaab rigid endoscope and endoscopic ultrasonic aspirator. Two patients presented with intraventricular metastases from high-grade tumors (medulloblastoma, atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor), 2 with subependymal giant cell astrocytomas (associated with tuberous sclerosis), 2 with low-grade intraparaventricular tumors, 4 with suprasellar tumors (2 craniopharyngiomas and 2 optic pathway gliomas), and 2 with pineal tumors (1 immature teratoma, 1 pineal anlage tumor). Hydrocephalus was present in 5 cases. In all patients, the endoscopic trajectory and ventricular access were guided by electromagnetic neuronavigation. Nine patients underwent surgery via a precoronal bur hole while supine. In 2 cases, surgery was performed through a frontal bur hole at the level of the hairline. One patient underwent surgery via a posterior parietal approach to the trigone while in a lateral position. The endoscopic technique consisted of visualization of the tumor, ventricular washing to dilate the ventricles and to control bleeding, obtaining a tumor specimen with biopsy forceps, and ultrasonic aspiration of the tumor. Bleeding was controlled with irrigation, monopolar coagulation, and a thulium laser.

RESULTS

In 7 cases, the resection was total or near total (more than 90% of lesion removed). In 5 cases, the resection was partial. Histological evaluation of the collected material (withdrawn using biopsy forceps and aspirated with an ultrasonic aspirator) was diagnostic in all cases. The duration of surgery ranged from 30 to 120 minutes. One case was complicated by subdural hygroma requiring a subduro-peritoneal shunt implant.

CONCLUSIONS

In this preliminary series, endoscopic ultrasonic aspiration proved to be a safe and reliable method for achieving extensive decompression or complete removal in the management of intra- and/or paraventricular lesions in pediatric patients.

Free access

Pietro Spennato, Carmela Chiaramonte, Domenico Cicala, Vittoria Donofrio, Manlio Barbarisi, Anna Nastro, Giuseppe Mirone, Vincenzo Trischitta, and Giuseppe Cinalli

OBJECTIVE

Intraventricular choroid plexus cysts are unusual causes of acute hydrocephalus in children. Radiological diagnosis of intraventricular choroid plexus cysts is difficult because they have very thin walls and fluid contents similar to CSF and can go undetected on routine CT studies.

METHODS

This study reports the authors' experience with 5 patients affected by intraventricular cysts originating from the choroid plexus. All patients experienced acute presentation with rapid neurological deterioration, sometimes associated with hypothalamic dysfunction, and required urgent surgery. In 2 cases the symptoms were intermittent, with spontaneous remission and sudden clinical deteriorations, reflecting an intermittent obstruction of the CSF pathway.

RESULTS

Radiological diagnosis was difficult in these cases because a nonenhanced CT scan revealed only triventricular hydrocephalus, with slight lateral ventricle asymmetry in all cases. MRI with driven-equilibrium sequences and CT ventriculography (in 1 case) allowed the authors to accurately diagnose the intraventricular cysts that typically occupied the posterior part of the third ventricle, occluding the aqueduct and at least 1 foramen of Monro. The patients were managed by urgent implantation of an external ventricular drain in 1 case (followed by endoscopic surgery, after completing a diagnostic workup) and by urgent endoscopic surgery in 4 cases. Endoscopic surgery allowed the shrinkage and near-complete removal of the cysts in all cases. Use of neuronavigation and a laser were indispensable. All procedures were uneventful, resulting in restoration of normal neurological conditions. Long-term follow-up (> 2 years) was available for 2 patients, and no complications or recurrences occurred.

CONCLUSIONS

This case series emphasizes the necessity of an accurate and precise identification of the possible causes of triventricular hydrocephalus. Endoscopic surgery can be considered the ideal treatment of choroid plexus cysts in children.

Restricted access

Giuseppe Cinalli, Alessandra Marini, Carmela Russo, Pietro Spennato, Giuseppe Mirone, Claudio Ruggiero, Lucia Quaglietta, Maria Serena de’ Santi, and Eugenio Covelli

OBJECTIVE

The goals of this study were to evaluate the extent of resection (EOR) obtained with an occipital interhemispheric transtentorial approach (OITA) in a series of pediatric patients with pineal region tumors and to define preoperative radiological factors predictive of the EOR.

METHODS

This is a retrospective cohort study of a series of pediatric patients with pineal tumors who underwent surgery through a microsurgical OITA performed by the senior author during the period from January 2006 to January 2020. The tumor volume was measured preoperatively, and then on sagittal midline cuts the authors identified the most cranial point of the torcular Herophili (defined as the “Herophilus point”) and the lowest point of the inferior profile of the vein of Galen (defined as the “Galen point”). The line joining these two points (defined as the "Herophilus-Galen line" [H-G line]) was used to identify the "Herophilus-Galen plane" (H-G plane) perpendicular to the sagittal plane. Tumor volumes located below and above this plane were measured. EOR was evaluated by measuring residual tumor volume visible on T1 volumetric injected sequences of immediate postoperative MRI.

RESULTS

Thirty patients were selected for study inclusion. The preoperative mean tumor volume was 15.120 cm3 (range 0.129–104.3 cm3). The mean volumes were 2.717 cm3 (range 0–31 cm3) above the H-G plane and 12.40 cm3 (median 5.27 cm3, range 0.12–72.87 cm3) below the H-G plane. Three patients underwent only biopsy. Of the remaining 27 patients, gross-total resection (GTR; 100% tumor volume) was achieved in 20 patients (74%). In the remaining 7 patients, the mean residual tumor volume was 7.3 cm3 (range 0.26–17.88 cm3). In 3 of these patients, GTR was accomplished after further surgical procedures (1 in 2 patients, 3 in 1 patient) for an overall GTR rate of 85.18%. Larger tumor volume was significantly associated with incomplete resection (p < 0.001). A tumor volume ≤ 2 cm3 above the H-G plane (p = 0.003), linear extension ≤ 1 mm above the H-G line, and pineal histology were predictive of GTR at first OITA procedure (p = 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS

The H-G line is an intuitive, easy-to-use, and reliable indicator of the superior anatomical limit of visibility during the microsurgical OITA. This anatomical landmark may be useful as a predictor of EOR for pineal tumors performed through this approach. The main limitations of this study are the small number of patients and the exclusively pediatric age of the patient population.

Free access

Giuseppe Cinalli, Daniel T. Aguirre, Giuseppe Mirone, Claudio Ruggiero, Daniele Cascone, Lucia Quaglietta, Ferdinando Aliberti, Serena de’ Santi, Maria Consiglio Buonocore, Anna Nastro, and Pietro Spennato

OBJECTIVE

In the past, the outcome of surgical treatment for thalamic tumor was poor. These lesions were often considered inoperable. However, contemporary microsurgical techniques, together with improvements in neuroimaging that enable accurate presurgical planning, allow resection to be accomplished in a safer way.

METHODS

The medical records, imaging studies, and operative and pathology reports obtained for pediatric patients who were treated for thalamic tumors at the authors’ department were reviewed. Neuronavigation and intraoperative monitoring of motor and somatosensory evoked potentials were used. Preoperative tractography, which helped to identify internal capsule fibers, was very important in selecting the surgical strategy. Postoperatively, an MRI study performed within 24 hours was used to assess the extent of tumor resection as partial (≤ 90%), subtotal (> 90%), or gross total (no residual tumor).

RESULTS

Since 2002, 27 children with thalamic tumors have been treated at the authors’ department. There were 9 patients with unilateral thalamic tumors, 16 with thalamopeduncular tumors, and 2 with a bilateral tumor. These last 2 patients underwent endoscopic biopsy and implantation of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Thirty-nine tumor debulking procedures were performed in the remaining 25 patients. Different surgical approaches were chosen according to tumor location and displacement of the posterior limb of the internal capsule (as studied on axial T2-weighted MRI) and corticospinal tract (as studied on diffusion tensor imaging with tractography, after it became available). In 12 cases, multiple procedures were performed; in 7 cases, these were done as part of a planned multistage resection. In the remaining 5 cases, the second procedure was necessary because of late recurrence or regrowth of residual tumor.

At the end of the surgical phase, of 25 patients, 15 (60%) achieved a gross-total resection, 4 (16%) achieved a subtotal resection, and 6 (24%) achieved a partial resection. Eighteen patients harbored low-grade tumors in our series. In this group, the mean follow-up was 45 months (range 4–132 months). At the end of follow-up, 1 patient was dead, 12 patients were alive with no evidence of disease, 4 patients were alive with stable disease, and 1 was lost to follow-up. All patients were independent in their daily lives. The outcome of high-grade tumors in 9 patients was very poor: 2 patients died immediately after surgery, 6 died of progressive disease, and 1 was alive with residual disease at the time of this report.

CONCLUSIONS

This institutional review seems to offer further evidence in favor of attempts at radical resection in pediatric patients harboring unilateral thalamic or thalamopeduncular tumors. In low-grade gliomas, radical resection in a single or staged procedure can be curative without complementary treatment. Recurrences or residual regrowth can be safely managed surgically. In high-grade tumors, the role of and opportunity for radical or partial resection remains a matter of debate.