Guglielmi detachable coil embolization
Role of radiosurgery for arteriovenous malformations
Leonardo Rangel-Castilla and Giuseppe Lanzino
In elderly patients with acute ischemic stroke, tortuosity of the proximal vertebral artery makes access from the transfemoral route challenging and time consuming. In such cases, a transradial approach (TA) offers a more direct vertebral artery (VA) access that overcomes proximal VA tortuosity. In this video the authors illustrate nuances of the TA for acute basilar artery occlusion in two patients with challenging proximal VA anatomy. Techniques, devices, and pitfalls are discussed. In both patients, mechanical clot retrieval was successful and resulted in significant recovery of function. The authors believe that the TA should be the initial approach for basilar artery (BA) occlusion management in elderly patients and should be considered for selected patients with other conditions requiring endovascular treatment.
The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/_Ym9tMKUy_4.
Thomas Sorenson and Giuseppe Lanzino
Saul F. Morales-Valero and Giuseppe Lanzino
Asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis is a well-recognized risk factor for ischemic stroke, and its prevalence increases with age. In the late 1980s and in the 1990s, well-designed randomized trials established a definite advantage for carotid endarterectomy in reducing the risk of ipsilateral stroke when compared with medical therapy alone. However, medical treatment of cardiovascular disease has improved significantly over the past 2 decades, and this has, in turn, resulted in a decline of the stroke risk in patients with asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis treated medically. This improvement in medical therapy casts doubts on the effectiveness of large-scale invasive treatment in patients with asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis. Several studies have been conducted to identify possible subgroups of patients with asymptomatic stenosis who are at higher risk of stroke in order to maximize the potential benefits of invasive treatment. Ongoing large-scale trials comparing best current medical therapy to available invasive treatments, such as carotid endarterectomy and carotid artery stenting, are likely to shed some light on this debated topic in the near future. In this review, the authors summarize the current controversy surrounding the ideal management of asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis.
Giuseppe Lanzino and Robert F. Spetzler
✓ An intraoperative aneurysm rupture due to a tear at the aneurysm neck can be a tricky complication to manage. The authors describe a simple technique found to be useful in such a case.
Sergio Paolini and Giuseppe Lanzino
During surgical procedures focused on the cervical nerve roots, the surgeon works in proximity to the V2 segment of the vertebral artery (VA). Depending on the specific surgical approach, it may be necessary to identify, expose, or mobilize the artery. In most cases, the artery may be left undisturbed. To reduce the risk of iatrogenic injury to the V2 segment during anterior and anterolateral approaches to the cervical spine, the authors analyzed the relationship between the V2 segment and the proximal segment of the C3–6 nerve roots.
Six cadaveric cervical spines (12 sides) were fixed with formalin, injected with red and blue latex, and investigated intraoperatively using different magnifications (× 3–40).
The VA rested on the anteromedial surface of the cervical nerve roots at the level of each intertransverse space. The exiting nerve roots intersected the VA at a distance ranging from 4.5 to 8.1 mm (mean 6.3 ± 1.06 mm) from the dural sac. The distance was slightly shorter at cephalad levels, suggesting that the artery is more posteriorly and medially situated at those levels. Arterial pedicles anchored the VA to the cervical nerve roots at various levels. These arteries gave rise to purely radicular, ligamentous, and medullary branches without a predictable pattern. After reaching the nerve roots on their lower margin, the nonligamentous branches pierced the radicular dural sheath within the neural foramen at a distance of 2 to 4 mm from the VA.
Proximal-to-distal dissection of a cervical nerve root may proceed with relative safety for at least 4 mm. The V2 segment of the VA gives rise to at least one radicular arterial pedicle between C-4 and C-6. These trunks give rise to purely radicular, ligamentous, and medullary branches in an unpredictable pattern.
Paolo Perrini and Giuseppe Lanzino
✓Developmental venous anomalies (DVAs) are often associated with intracranial cavernous malformations (CMs). The frequency of this association and the observation of de novo CMs located near a known, preexisting DVA raise speculations as to the possible etiopathogenetic relationship between the two. In this article, the authors review the recent literature dealing with the potential etiopathogenetic, prognostic, and therapeutic implications of the association between DVAs and CMs.