Jan Frederick Cornelius and Philipp Jörg Slotty
Alessandro Della Puppa, Oriela Rustemi, Giorgio Gioffrè, Giuseppe Rolma, Marzia Grandis, Marina Munari and Renato Scienza
There are no doubts about the role that indocyanine green video angiography (ICGVA) can play in current vascular neurosurgery. Conversely, in brain tumor surgery, and particularly in meningioma surgery, this role is still unclear. Vein management is pivotal for approaching parasagittal meningiomas, because venous preservation is strictly connected to both extent of resection and clinical outcome. The authors present the technical traits and the postoperative outcome of the application of ICGVA in patients undergoing parasagittal meningioma surgery.
The authors retrospectively collected demographic, radiological, intraoperative, and follow-up data in 43 patients with parasagittal meningiomas who underwent surgery with the assistance of ICGVA at Padua Neurosurgical Department between October 2010 and July 2013. Intraoperative ICGVA findings at different stages (before dural opening, after dural opening, during resection, after resection) were reviewed. Additional data on functional monitoring, temporary venous clipping, and flow measurements were also recorded. The overall postoperative outcome was evaluated by assessing both the extent of resection and the clinical outcome data.
The ICGVA studies were performed 125 times in 43 patients, providing helpful data for vein management and tumor resection in all stages of surgery. In 16% of meningiomas completely occluding the superior sagittal sinus, the ICGVA data differed from radiological findings and changed the surgical approach. In 20% of cases the intraoperative ICGVA findings directly guided the surgical strategy: venous sacrifice was necessary in 7 cases, without postoperative consequences; temporary clipping with neurophysiological monitoring proved to be predictive of safe venous sacrifice. In 7% of cases the ICGVA data needed to be supplemented with flow measurements. Simpson Grade I–II and Grade III resections were achieved in 86% and 14% of cases, respectively, with a 4.6% rate of overall morbidity.
This study shows that ICGVA can assist the different stages of parasagittal meningiomas surgery, guiding the vein management and tumor resection strategies with a favorable final clinical outcome. However, in the authors' experience the use of other complementary tools was mandatory in selected cases to preserve functional areas. Further studies are needed to confirm that the application of ICGVA in parasagittal meningioma surgery may improve the morbidity rate, as reported in this study.
Alessandro Della Puppa, Serena De Pellegrin, Anna Lazzarini, Giorgio Gioffrè, Oriela Rustemi, Annachiara Cagnin, Renato Scienza and Carlo Semenza
Preservation of calculation processing in brain surgery is crucial for patients' quality of life. Over the last decade, surgical electrostimulation was used to identify and preserve the cortical areas involved in such processing. Conversely, subcortical connectivity among different areas implicated in this function remains unclear, and the role of surgery in this domain has not been explored so far. The authors present the first 2 cases in which the subcortical functional sites involved in calculation were identified during right parietal lobe surgery. Two patients affected by a glioma located in the right parietal lobe underwent surgery with the aid of MRI neuronavigation. No calculation deficits were detected during preoperative assessment. Cortical and subcortical mapping were performed using a bipolar stimulator. The current intensity was determined by progressively increasing the amplitude by 0.5-mA increments (from a baseline of 1 mA) until a sensorimotor response was elicited. Then, addition and multiplication calculation tasks were administered. Corticectomy was performed according to both the MRI neuronavigation data and the functional findings obtained through cortical mapping. Direct subcortical electrostimulation was repeatedly performed during tumor resection. Subcortical functional sites for multiplication and addition were detected in both patients. Electrostimulation interfered with calculation processing during cortical mapping as well. Functional sites were spared during tumor removal. The postoperative course was uneventful, and calculation processing was preserved. Postoperative MRI showed complete resection of the tumor. The present preliminary study shows for the first time how functional mapping can be a promising method to intraoperatively identify the subcortical functional sites involved in calculation processing. This report therefore supports direct electrical stimulation as a promising tool to improve the current knowledge on calculation processing connectivity.
Alessandro Della Puppa, Serena De Pellegrin, Elena d'Avella, Giorgio Gioffrè, Marina Munari, Marina Saladini, Elena Salillas, Renato Scienza and Carlo Semenza
The role of parietal areas in number processing is well known. The significance of intraoperative functional mapping of these areas has been only partially explored, however, and only a few discordant data are available in the surgical literature with regard to the right parietal lobe. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical impact of simple calculation in cortical electrostimulation of right-handed patients affected by a right parietal brain tumor.
Calculation mapping in awake surgery was performed in 3 right-handed patients affected by high-grade gliomas located in the right parietal lobe. Preoperatively, none of the patients presented with calculation deficits. In all 3 cases, after sensorimotor and language mapping, cortical and intraparietal sulcus areas involved in single-digit multiplication and addition calculations were mapped using bipolar electrostimulation.
In all patients, different sites of the right parietal cortex, mainly in the inferior lobule, were detected as being specifically related to calculation (multiplication or addition). In 2 patients the intraparietal sulcus was functionally specific for multiplication. No functional sites for language were detected. All sites functional for calculation were spared during tumor resection, which was complete in all cases without postoperative neurological deficits.
These findings provide intraoperative data in support of an anatomofunctional organization for multiplication and addition within the right parietal area. Furthermore, the study shows the potential clinical relevance of intraoperative mapping of calculation in patients undergoing surgery in the right parietal area. Further and larger studies are needed to confirm these data and assess whether mapped areas are effectively essential for function.
Alessandro Della Puppa, Oriela Rustemi, Giorgio Gioffrè, Irene Troncon, Giuseppe Lombardi, Giuseppe Rolma, Massimo Sergi, Marina Munari, Diego Cecchin, Marina Paola Gardiman and Renato Scienza
Bone invasion is a major concern in meningioma surgery, since it is predictive of the recurrence of cranial involvement, morbidity, and mortality. Bone invasion has been reported in 20%–68% of studies with histopathologically confirmed data. Unfortunately, radical resection of bone invasion remains challenging. The aim of this study was to assess the role of 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) fluorescence in guiding the resection of bone-invading meningiomas. To this purpose, the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of 5-ALA in detecting meningioma bone invasion were evaluated.
Data from 12 patients affected by bone-invading meningiomas (7 with skull base and 5 with convexity meningiomas) who had undergone surgery with the assistance of 5-ALA fluorescence and neuronavigation between July 2012 and March 2013 at the Department of Neurosurgery of Padua were retrospectively analyzed. To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of 5-ALA fluorescence in detecting meningioma tissue, a pathologist analyzed 98 surgical bone samples under blue light, according to different fluorescence patterns. Magnetic resonance images and CT scans were obtained pre- and postoperatively to determine the extent of bone invasion resection.
The rate of 5-ALA–induced fluorescence of both tumor and bone invasion was 100%. Based on the pathological examination of bone specimens, 5-ALA presented a sensitivity of 89.06% (95% CI 81.41%–96.71%) and a specificity of 100% in detecting meningioma bone invasion, while the positive and negative predictive values were 100% and 82.93% (95% CI 71.41%–94.45%), respectively. At the postoperative stage, MRI did not detect cases of meningioma bone invasion, whereas CT scans revealed residual hyperostosis in 2 cases.
In summary, 5-ALA fluorescence represents a suitable and reliable technique for identifying and removing bone infiltration by meningiomas. However, further studies are needed to prove the clinical consequences of this promising technique in a larger population.