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Matteo Zoli, Giacomo Sollini, Sofia Asioli, Clarissa Ann Elisabeth Gelmi, Angelo Gianluca Corradini, Ernesto Pasquini and Diego Mazzatenta

We present the case of a 47-year-old man with left exophthalmus. MRI showed a left intraorbital intraconal cavernous malformation, located in the superoesternal quadrant and medially displacing the optic nerve. An endoscopic transpalpebral approach was performed and total removal was achieved after dissection of the lesion from the optic nerve and other orbital structures. Pathology confirmed the diagnosis of cavernous malformation. The patient was discharged neurologically intact on the second postoperative day free of complications. Follow-up MRI demonstrated radical resection of the cavernoma and resolution of the exophthalmus with an excellent esthetic result.

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Matteo Zoli, Giacomo Sollini, Laura Milanese, Emanuele La Corte, Arianna Rustici, Federica Guaraldi, Sofia Asioli, Luigi Cirillo, Ernesto Pasquini and Diego Mazzatenta

OBJECTIVE

Surgical treatment of orbital lesions is challenging because complex approaches with a high risk of postoperative sequelae are required. Recently, minimally invasive endoscopic approaches through endonasal (EEA) and transpalpebral (ETP) routes have been proposed. The objective of this study was to assess outcomes of EEA and ETP in the authors’ series of patients with orbital lesions.

METHODS

Data from all patients who underwent operations for an orbital tumor through an endoscopic approach at the authors’ institution from 2002 to 2018 were retrospectively collected. All patients underwent preoperative MRI and ophthalmological evaluation, which was repeated 3 months after surgery and then at regular follow-up intervals. A systematic review of the literature was also performed using Medline, Embase, and Web of Science databases.

RESULTS

The series includes 23 patients (14 males); the mean patient age was 48 ± 23.9 years. Most of the lesions were intraconal (n = 19, 83%). The more frequent histotype was cavernous hemangioma (n = 5, 22%). Exophthalmos was the most common symptom (21 of 23 patients). EEA was performed in 16 cases (70%) and ETP in 7 (30%). The aim of the surgery was achieved in 94% of the cases after an EEA (successful biopsy in 5 of 6 cases and radical resection in all 10 remaining patients), and in 86% after an ETP (successful biopsy in 2 cases and radical tumor resection in 4 of 5 cases). Complications consisted of 3 cases (13%) of transitory diplopia. One recurrence (4%) was observed at follow-up (mean 59 ± 55 months).

CONCLUSIONS

The EEA and ETP have demonstrated to be safe and effective for tumors located respectively in medial and lateral quadrants, permitting one to approach orbital lesions endoscopically at 360°. Innovative surgical tools, including intraoperative ultrasonography, may be useful to potentially reduce surgical morbidity. Larger series are needed to validate these preliminary suggestions.